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Epidemiology

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allelipraise's version from 2017-09-28 15:43

Section 1

Question Answer
Clinical careprevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by medical and allied health professions; also known as health care.
Determinantfactor that contributes to the generation of a trait.
epidemicrefers to a larger geographic distribution of illness or health- related events.
Outbreakoccurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related event clearly in excess of normal expectancy
Health outcome result of a medical condition that directly affects the length or quality of a person’s life.
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Section 2

Question Answer
SurveillanceWhat is the problem?
Risk Factor IdentificationWhat is the cause?
Intervention EvaluationWhat works?
ImplementationHow do you do it?
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Section 3

Question Answer
Public HealthPrevention Effectiveness/Epidemiology/Surveillance/Informatics/Laboratory
Epidemiology Study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states among specified populations and the application of that study to the control of health problems
Conductive StudiesStudies are conducted in an attempt to discover associations between an exposure or risk factor and a health outcome
CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDYSubjects are selected because they are members of a certain population subset at a certain time
Study Design — Cohort Study Subjects are categorized on the basis of their exposure to one or more risk factors
Study Design Type — Case-Control StudySubjects identified as having a disease or condition are compared with subjects without the same disease or condition
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Section 4

Question Answer
DISCOVERthe agent, host, and environmental factors that affect health
DETERMINEthe relative importance of causes of illness, disability, and death
IDENTIFYthose segments of the population that have the greatest risk from specific causes of ill health
EVALUATEthe effectiveness of health programs and services in improving population health
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Section 5

Question Answer
EPIDEMIC OR OUTBREAKdisease occurrence among a population that is in excess of what is expected in a given time and place.
CLUSTERgroup of cases in a specific time and place that might be more than expected.
ENDEMICdisease or condition present among a population at all times.
PANDEMICa disease or condition that spreads across regions.
RATEnumber of cases occurring during a specific period; always dependent on the size of the population during that period.
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Section 6

Question Answer
Rate Formula To calculate a rate, we first need to determine the frequency of disease, which includes
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Section 7

Question Answer
Step 1 -Outbreak Investigation- Establishing the existence of an outbreakUse data from data sources
Step 2 -Outbreak Investigation-Preparing for field workResearch the disease • Gather supplies and equipment • Arrange travel
Step 3 -Outbreak Investigation-Verifying the diagnosisSpeak with patients • Review laboratory findings and clinical test results
Step 4 -Outbreak Investigation-Defining and identifying casesEstablish a case definition by using a standard set of criteria
Step 5 -Outbreak Investigation-Using descriptive epidemiologyDescribe and orient the data
Step 6 -Outbreak InvestigationDevelop a focused hypothesis
Step 7 -Outbreak InvestigationEvaluate the hypothesis for validity
Step 8 -Outbreak InvestigationRefine the hypothesis as needed
Step 9 -Outbreak Investigation-Implement control and prevention measuresControl and prevent additional cases
Step 10 -Outbreak Investigation-Communicate findingsDetermine who needs to know • Determine how information will be communicated • Identify why the information needs to be communicated
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