Epi- Final- 3

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-09-08 16:54

Biological disasters

Question Answer
what are the three kinds of biological disasters?(1) naturally occuring (2) accidental (3) intentional in origin (bioterrorism and agroterrorism)
of naturally occuring biological disasters, what are the two subgroups of this?non-emerging and emerging
explain emerging vs non-emerging biological disasters (2 types of naturally occuring BDs)(1) non-emerging: ex: plague in parts of the US. (2) Emerging: Incidence has either increased in the past 2 decades or threatened to increase in the near future (ex: pandemic H1N1)
what are some of the consequences of naturally occuring dzs?(1) economic devasatation (2) psychological impact (3)improved preparedness
whats an example of an accidental disaster?ecoli contamination of beef products over the last 10 years
what are the three consequences of accidental disasters?(1) economic devastation (2) psychological impact (3) improved preparedness (same as the naturally occuring ones)
whats more likely? the naturally occurring, accidental, or intentional biological disasters?accidentally and natural are WAY MORE COMMON
what is AGROTERRORISM?the intent is to indirectly attack persons by destruction of the plant and animal infrastructure
what is bioterrorism?the intent is to threaten people directly with biological organisms.
what are some clues which would indicate that the biological disaster might have been intentional?(1) Clustering of dz (temporally or geographically, in healthy animals or people) (2) dz occuring outside of normal season (3) Disease occurs in a different spp to the expected (4) Dissemination may cover large area very quickly (airborne) (5) Acute morbidity/mortality depending on the agent
Effectiveness of Agents/Attack of a intentional biological disaster is dependent upon...(list some stuff)Category of Agent used and mechanisms of action, Dose reqd for infection: [morbidity vs mortality], >cause economic/psychological/physical devastation, Inexpensive, easy to obtain and produce, Biological characteristics –environmental stability, Treatment availability, The target chosen, Method employed for dispersal, Quality of Emergency response plans
what's the CDC definition of a bioterrorism attack?A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants.
The list of the select agents were determined based on criteria...what are the 5 criteria(1) the public health impact (2) The delivery potential to large populations (3) Potential for person to person transmission (4) The public perception as related to public fear (5) The special public health preparedness needs
Explain category A, B, and CCategory A is the HIGHEST priority. B is the 2nd highest, C is the third highest.
The A list Includes high-priority agents that pose a risk to national security because they can:Be easily disseminated/transmitted person to person, high mortality rates + >major public health impact, cause panic, and need special action for preparedness
What are 4 class A agents? point out the two most virulent formsBacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), and ebola. The most virulent forms include Inhalational anthrax, and Pneumonic plague [aerosol]
Describe what makes something a category B list, and give 5 examplesthey are moderatively easy to disseminate, have moderate morbidity but low mortality, and Req. enhanced diagnostic capacity+ surveillance. The 5 category Bs she mentioned were Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella, E. coli 0157, Shigella
describe what makes something a category C list, and two examplesThere are Emerging pathogens that could be engineered for future mass dissemination because of: availibility, ease of production +dissemination, potential for high morbidity/mortality major PH impact. Two examples would be: Nipah virus -emerged in pigs in 1999, hantavirus (1980s)
what route of entry is of the greatest concern out of the bioterror agents?Aerosol: Inhalation into the lungs >route of greatest concern, since all Category A agents can be effectively disseminated via aerosol [anthrax 2001]
(Primary) Pneumonic Plague-- what is super important to know about this?Most likely form to be used as a bioterror agent! Pneumonic form causes high mortality, and is rapidly spread via aerosol transmission. Without treatment, it's 100% fatal. Develops as a result of inhaling infectious droplets from an infected cat or human
what is the vet's role in public heath matters?They are to educate owners, and educate high risk groups. Notify State public health and Animal health officials; Federal CDC >human cases. IT IS NOT THE VETS ROLE TO TREAT HUMANS, ONLY TO ADVISE THEY Seek help from their MD
what does CDC stand for? what is their focus?Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Focus: protecting human health.
what is agroterrorism?The malicious use of plant or animal pathogens to cause disease in the agricultural sector – plants or animals. OR, The deliberate introduction of an animal or plant disease with the goal of generating fear over the safety of food, causing economic loss and/ or undermining social stability
What is "tier 1" ?Tier 1 added to both HHS and USDA APHIS select agents, a category that presents the greatest risk of deliberate misuse with the greatest potential for mass casualties/devastation to the economy, infrastructure or public confidence.
Examples of APHIS – SPECIFIC Select agents: more likely to be used as agroterrorism agent (5)****FMD (highest priority), classical swine fever, newcastle dz, vesicular stomatitis, highly pathogenic avian influenza. (In addition, other agents categorised on the CDC (A-C) used to infect animals)
why might a terrorist pick agroterrorism?Not the animal/crops but the people who rely on them for food+ jobs thus agroterrorism =economic terrorism. Attacks on plants or animals less emotionally sensitive than attacks on humans. Often delay in recognition, making “get away” easier, Agriculture is a sleeping target, not yet fully recognised for its vulnerability/not yet fully protected.
why is agroterrorism so difficult to deal with?Multiple points of entry, Multiple possible delivery methods, Natural (Accidental) v. intentional, Real vs hoax
in agroterrorism, explain direct vs indirect modes of transmissionDirect Transmission: Essentially, immediate transfer of infectious agents (Eg. Introduction of animals carrying FMD[aerosol]). Indirect Transmission: Vehicle-borne-fomites, clothing..(FMD), Vector-borne-unreliable (insects)
What is the vet's role when it comes to agroterrorism?Be observant: animals as sentinels of disease! Quick diagnosis,quarantine,depopulation of animals. Ongoing Surveillance- Track baseline disease prevalence and incidence. Encourage biosecurity on the farm+ you, the vet, Report to proper authorities in a timely manner, and Encourage teamwork to deal with existing disasters
what is the HHS?Department of Health and Human Services
what is the USDA-APHIS?US department of agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
what is the FDA?food and drug administration
what is the EPA?Environmental Protection Agency
what is the role of USDA-APHIS?The lead federal agency in: (1) safeguarding American livestock and poultry health and in responding to a foreign animal, emerging or reemerging disease is the:U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)-Veterinary Services Division. There is also a Emergency programs division and National Vet. Labs


Question Answer
bascillus anthracisA, anthrax
clostridium botulinum (toxin)A, botulism
yersinia pestisA, the plague
variola majorA, smallpox
fransciella tularensisA, tularemia
Filoviruses and arenavirusesA, viral hemorrhagic fever, eg ebola and lassa viruses
brucella sppB, brucellosis
burkholderia malleiB, glanders
burkholderia pseudomalleiB, melioidosis
chlamydophila psittaciB, psittacosis
coxiella burnettiB, Q-fever
rickettsia prowazekiiB, epidemic typus fever
alphavirusesB, encephalitis (western, eastern, and venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses)
toxins (eg ricin and staphylococcal enterotoxin B)B, toxic syndromes
food safety threats (list some)B, salmonella and E coli (0157:H7)
water safety threats (list some)B, cryptosporidium and vibrio cholerae
Nipha virusC (emerging threat)
hantavirusC (emerging threat)

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