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Enzymes

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krabi's version from 2015-07-27 03:38

Section

Question Answer
What are two models of enzyme-substrate complexes?1) Lock & key: explains specificity 2) Induced Fit: both enzyme and substrate change shape after binding and change orientation for better binding *Active sites - noncovalent bonding
What is Km?Michaelis constant; Km is the substrate concentration where ⇒ reaction is ½ of Vmax; Predicts substrate affinity (under certain conditions)
What are the differences between 2 kinds of Co-Enzymes?INSERT ANSWER
Co-substratesreversible binding; transfers chem group to another substrate ⇒ then reverts to original form; Important to know that this is role for ATP is an ‘enzyme special friend’ during metabolic rx
Prosthetic GroupsIn contrast, prosthetic groups stay covalently bound eg. vitamins, heme, metal ions
APOENZYMEFriendless, non-functional enzyme w/out cofactor
HOLOENZYMEhas friends, is holistically attached
Name the 3 ways that bacteria acquire new genetic materialTTC - TRANSDUCTION, TRANSFORMATION, CONJUGATION
TRANSDUCTIONDNA transfer through lysogenic phage
TRANSFORMATIONWhen pure DNA is added to a yogourt culture - pick up genetic information
CONJUGATIONasexual, F factor which is a DNA circle. FOrms pilli form a conjugation bridge, F+ donor gives DNA to F- recipient.
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Section

Question Answer
What do Bacteria Need to Grow? FAT_TOM! Food, shelter, clothing.
TROPHEating from the food trough
AUTOTROPHNeed CO2 for carbon
HETEROTROPHEating to get nutrients from other organism, ie. glucose/fruit
CHEMOTROPHeating chemical; organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
PHOTOTROPHSEating light
Obligate Aerobesneeds oxygen to live, in ETC!
3 kinds of AnerobesFOT - Facultative, Obligate and Tolerant
FacultativeUse O2 if around but don’t need it - faculty is full of hot air but doesn’t need to act like that
Tolerantcan tolerate it, ie. grow, but doesn’t use for metabolism
ObligateO2 is poison - obligation to poison
Fermentation VS. REspirationglucose catabolism w/oxygen VS glucose catabolism w/out oxygen (uses pyruvic acid)
What is Anerobic Respiration?Glucose metabolism w/electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation with another external electron acceptor
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Section

Question Answer
Regulated Secretory PathwaySpecialized cells such as B-cells or pancreatic cells; Release at certain times in response & environment changes
Constitutive Secretory PathwayFrom Golgi to cell surface; Unregulated secretory pathway
NLSPores allow for transport; Larger proteins need to show passport of NLS a sequence of aa; eg. the RNA is transported out with a specific transport system
SIGNAL SEQUENCESignal sequence: aa@ N-terminus for secreted & lysosomal proteins pre-translation; The SS is then recognized by (SRP) ⇒ binds to ribosome; Removed at translation
Where does the Signal Sequence Docl?DOcks at Ribsome-SRP complex on cytoplasm surface
What happens to SS POst-translation? SRP is removed by peptidase @ ER lumen
TRANSMEMBRANE PATHWAYhydrophobic aa bits called transmembrane proteins; SS w/out N terminus; Thread through ER membrane
How is the Trans. pathway different from SS?Not removed after translation
WHAT IS THE Structure OF THE NLS?Nuclear envelope is double lipid bi-layer membranes; Pores allow for transport
WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NLSLarger proteins need to show passport of NLS a sequence of aa ==> eg. the RNA is transported out with a specific transport system
WHAT IS THE SECRETORY PATHWAY? Proteins in rER have 3 paths: 1) go outside the cell 2) integral proteins embedded in membrane 3) ER, Golgi or lysosome
HOW ARE INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS PROCESSED?Contain hydrophobic aa bits called transmembrane proteins; signal sequences w/out N terminus; Not removed after translation ; Thread through ER membrane
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