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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND SANITATION

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allelipraise's version from 2017-11-07 20:05

Section 1

Question Answer
POLLUTIONPollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light.
AIR POLLUTIONThe introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into the Earth’s atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.
WATER POLLUTION Environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into bodies of water without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTIONDischarges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain.
POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTIONContaminants that enter a waterway from single, identifiable source such as pipe or ditch.
NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTIONDiffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source.
NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTIONOften the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminant gathered from a large area.
GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATIONhuge source of drinking water and it is also used for irrigation.
GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATIONContamination occurs when man-made products such as gasoline, oil or other chemicals find their way into the groundwater and cause it to be unsafe and unfit for human use.
ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANTScontaminants in other parts of the cycle, such as the atmosphere or bodies of surface water, can eventually be transferred into our groundwater supplies.
WATER QUALITYA measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.
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Section 2

Question Answer
SULFUR OXIDESThrough the process of oxidation, it can result to acid rain
NITROGEN OXIDESWhen inhaled, can irritate lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infection
CARBON MONOXIDECan be lethal to humans
METHANEMajor greenhouse gas, contributes largely to climate change
CHOLOROFLUOROCARBONSHarmful to the ozone layer which protects the earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun
AMMONIAIt can react with Nitrogen and Sulfur to form secondary particles
PARTICULATESHealth hazards: may lead to heart diseases or lung cancer
SULFUR OXIDESCoal, petroleum, industrial plants, volcanic eruptions
NITROGEN OXIDESThunderstorms, output of high temperature combustions such as cars, electric utilities and industrial boilers
CARBON MONOXIDECombustion of natural gas, coal or wood, vehicular exhaust
METHANELeaks from natural gas plants, petroleum, livestock, landfills, wetlands, wildfires, ocean, volacanoes
CHOLOROFLUOROCARBONSRefrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol sprays
AMMONIAAgricultural activities
PARTICULATESVolcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, burning of fossil fuels
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Section 3

Question Answer
SEPTIC SYSTEMSMay contain gasoline, oil, chemicals, or other types of liquids and they can either be above or below ground.
STORAGE TANKSOnsite wastewater disposal systems used by homes offices or other buildings that are not connected to a city sewer system
UNCONTROLLED HAZARDOUS WASTEHazardous waste sites can lead to groundwater contamination if there are barrels or other containers laying around that are full of hazardous materials.
LANDFILLSThe places that our garbage is taken to be buried. They are supposed to have protective bottom layer to prevent contaminants from getting into the water. If there is no layer or it is cracked, contaminants from the landfill can make their way down into the ground water.
Chemicalsinclude products used on lawns and farm fields to kill weeds and insects and to fertilize plants and other products used in homes and businesses. When it rains, these chemicals can seep into the ground and eventually into the water.
Road salts used during wintertime to put melt ice on roads to keep cars from sliding around. When ice melts, the salt gets washed off the roads and eventually ends up in the water.
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Section 4

Question Answer
DRINKING WATER 2007 (AO2007-0012)THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR?
Section 2.4time of collection of a sample and its analysis.
2.4.1 Collect samples from wells
2.4.2. samples are collected from surface water sources such as river or stream
2.4.3When sampling lakes and reservoirs,
2.4.4.flush the lines sufficiently
2.4.5 oil films
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Section 5

Question Answer
LEVEL 1Once every 3 months
LEVEL 2Once every 2 months
LEVEL 3One sample monthly.
Water Refilling Stations/Water Vending Machines1 sample monthly
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Section 6

Question Answer
SANITATIONhe provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces.
SANITATIONThe collection, transport, treatment and disposal of reuse of human excreta, domestic wastewater and solid waste, and associated hygiene promotion
PD 856 CODE ___ON SANITATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
PD 856 CODE ON SANITATION OF THE PHILIPPINESPrescribes regulations on water supply, food establishments, markets, public laundry, school sanitation and health services, industrial hygiene, public bathing places, camps and picnic grounds, dance halls, massage clinics, hotels and apartments.
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Section 7

Question Answer
LEVEL I or point sourceIt is a protected well or a developed spring with an outlet but without distribution system, generally adaptable for rural areas where the houses are thinly scattered It normally serves around 15 households.
LEVEL II or Communal Faucet System or Stand-postsIt is a system composed of a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network and communal faucets, generally suitable for rural and urban fringe areas where houses are clustered densely to justify a simple piped system. Usually 1 faucet serves 4-6 households.
 LEVEL III or Waterworks System or Individual House ConnectionsIt is a system with a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network and household taps, generally suited for densely populated urban areas.
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Section 8

Question Answer
INITIAL EXAMINATIONThe physical, chemical and bacteriological examination of water from newly constructed systems or sources are required before they are operated and opened for public use. Examination of water for possible radio-active contamination should also be done initially.
PERIODIC EXAMINATIONWater from existing sources is subject to bacterial examination as often as possible but the interval shall not be longer than six months, while general systematic chemical examination shall be conducted every 12 months or often. Examination of water sources shall be conducted yearly for possible radioactive contamination.
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Section 9

Question Answer
GROUP I WATER REQUIRING DISINFECTION ONLY Water from underground or surface sources subject to a low degree of contamination, and having a Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform organisms not exceeding 50 per 100mL.
GROUP II WATER REQUIRING COMPLETE TREATMENTWater from underground or surface sources having a MPN of coliform organisms 50 per 100mL to not more than 5,000 per 100mL
Chlorine used as the main water disinfectant
50- 100ppm chlorine solution shall be in disinfectingIn chlorinating Level I Water Supply Facility, a dose of
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Section 10

Question Answer
FOOD SAFETYAll food must be obtained from sources approved by the local health authority and that no person or entity shall operate a food establishment for public patronage without securing a permit from the local health office
FOOD ESTABLISHMENTAn establishment where food or drinks are manufactured, processed, stored, sold or reserved.
SECTION 17 CODE OF SANITATION OF THE PHILIPPINESFood handling and storage
SECTION 16 OF THE CODE OF SANITATION OF THE PHILIPPINESMeat and dairy products
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Section 11

Question Answer
WHO FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOODKeep clean
WHO FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOODSeparate raw and cooked food
WHO FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOODCook food thoroughly
WHO FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOODKeep food at safe temperatures
WHO FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOODUse safe water and raw materials
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