Environmental Issues Chapter 1

cetidafo's version from 2015-10-31 03:32


Question Answer
environmental sciencethe systematic study of our environment and our place in it. The use of scientific methods to study processes/systems in the environment in which we live
environmentalismworking to influence attitudes/policies that affect our environment
throughputthe amount of resources we use and dispose of
ecosystem servicesrefers to services or resources provided by environmental systems
Tragedy of the CommonsHardin: population growth leads inevitably to overuse and then destruction of common resources
Sustainabilitya search for ecological stability and human progress that can last over the long term
sustainable development"meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
indigenous peoplesgenerally the least powerful, most neglected groups
sciencea process for producing knowledge based on observations
reproducibilitymaking an observation or obtaining a particular result consistently
replicationrepeating studies or tests
deductive reasoning logical reasoning from general to specific
inductive reasoningreasoning from many observations to produce a general rule
hypothesisa testable explanation
scientific theorywhen an explanation has been supported by a large number of tests, and when a majority of experts have reached a general consensus that it is a reliable description or explanation
probabilitya measure of how likely something is to occur
natural experimentone in which you observe natural events and interpret a causal relationship between the variables
manipulative experimentconditions are deliberately altered and all other variables are held constant
controlled studycomparing an treatment (exposed) group and a control (unexposed) group
blind experimentsthe researcher doesn't know which group is treated until after the data have been analyzed
double-blind experimentsneither the subject nor the researcher knows who is in the treatment group and who is in the control group
dependent variableknown as response variable; affected by the independent variables
independent variableone that doesn't respond to any other variables in a particular test
explanatory variablesthey explain differences in the dependent variables
scientific consensusgeneral agreement among informed scholars
paradigm shiftsoccur when a majority of scientists accept that the old explanation no longer describes new observations very well
sound sciencescience that is valid
analytical thinkinghelps break a problem down into its constituent parts
creative thinking"How might I approach this problem in new and inventive ways?"
logical thinkingevaluates whether the structure of your argument make sense
reflective thinking"What does it all mean?"
utilitarian conservationthe philosophy that resources should be used for the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time
preservationemphasizes the fundamental right of other organisms to exist and to pursue their own interests
modern environmentalismconcerns extended to include both natural resources and environmental pollution
global environmentalismthe extention of modern environmental concerns to global issues