Environmental History Exam 3

swimmergirl171994's version from 2015-05-12 15:31

Section 1

Question Answer
Manhatan Project(July 16, 1945) The beginning of the idea of Apocalyptic scenarios. Nuclear power and the idea that Science can fi everything.
Douglas McKay(1953-59) Eisenhower's Secretary of Interior. Giveaway large contract to ranchers miners, farmers, etc. of government land. No charge– all free
Rachel Carson(1962) Silent Spring. Awareness of assault on America by chemical spraying, especially DDT. Critized that science may not all be good.
Wilderness Act(1964) Under LBJ. Designated sections of forests as protected wilderness areas
White House Conference on Natural Beauty(May, 1965) Under LBJ. Argued for aesthetic value over mere material value. Restore and Innovation. Preserve, not just manage.
David Brower
Iron Eyes CodyPolitical advertisements to save the environment (littering). First time we are challenged to stop littering. Spotless Susy, Give a hoot don’t pollute. Children audience
Barry CommonerScientist – highlighting the dangers of industry on the environment. Added nuclear fallout to his warning
Santa Barbara Oil Spill(1969) For eleven days, oil workers struggled to cap the rupture. During that time, 200,000 gallons of crude oil bubbled to the surface
Cuyahoga River (1969) Burning of the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland

Section 2

Question Answer
First Earth Day(April 22, 1970) Nixon responsed to the large amount of support towards GRassroots movements. 20,000,000 Americans participated. Enviromental Action was form to help with Earth Day activites
National Wildlife Federation(1936) Had a right-use philosophy- worked with industry and government officials.
Environmental Defense Fund(1967) soon became a major source of environmental expertise and policy action. Against the use of DDT – against the wide range use of pesticides.
Green Parties(April 1971) Philosophies regarding nature tied to political parties and action
Daniel BrelezFirst Green Party candidate to be elected to a national parliament when he won a seat in the Swiss assembly in 1979
League of Conservation Voters(1970) Tracked the voting records of congress regarding environmental issues
Greenpeace(1971) Founded in Vancouver Cananda due to the US bomb testing in Alaska. Known for its use of nonviolent, direct action campaigns
Three Mile Island(March 28, 1979) The island hada partial meltdown. . After this accident, support for nuclear power across the country fell
Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA)The National Environmental Policy (1970) required an environmental impact study on all government projects. To cary this out Nixon created the EPA
William D. RuchkelshausFirst EPA adminstator. The agency had no clear standards but he made something out of nothing
Clean Air Act(1955, revised in 1970) The act stipulated that factories and power plants must install special smokestack filters known as scrubbers.
Acid RainDestroys statues, forest and water ways.
Yucca Mountain(1982) Congress manadated that there be a perment location for nuclear waste by 1988. Still no location opened. 34 states have nuclear plants and there are 77,000 metric tons of waste
Clean Water Act(1972) Regulated release of pollutants into the water. Followed by the Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
Marine Mammal Protection Act(1972) Illegal to take, or hunt any marine mammal, enforced by the Secretary of Commerce and Secretary of Interior
Population BoomCauses of population growth- Agricultural, industrial and medical revolutions
Endangered Species Act(1973) first time in history the government undertook a concrete systematic effort to save wildlife from the destructive behavior of humans

Section 3

Question Answer
Conservation BacklashBecause of lacking of economic growth, Reagan dismantled much of the Environmental legislation and achievements of the 1970s
James WattSecretary of Interior during Reagan. Dismantled environmental protection programs
Sugebrush Rebellion(1970s-80s) Supported by James Watt. A movement that wanted to sell government land to ranchers, miners loggers etc. Bakclash against Watt he was forced to reign in 1982
Ozone PollutantsUnder the Clean Air Act established acceptable limits of ozone at 0.12 parts of ozone per million parts, however 1/3 of Americans live in an area that exceeds this limit. Could cause cancer and respiratory problems
Global Warming
Montreal Protocol(1987) U.S. and 23 other countries agreed to phase out CFC’s by 1999. Revised 5+ times
Exxon Valdez(1989) oil tanker Exxon Valdez spilt 11 million gallons of crude oil in Alaska’s Prince William Sound
Spotted Owl(1987) Fish and Wildlife Service received first petition to regard the northern spotted owl as “threatened” as defined by the Endangered Species Act. First diagreed but with pressure they agreed
PETA(1980) Protested animal farming and animal testing, the clothing trade, and animals in entertainment.
Animal Liberation FrontExtreme group Animal Libertation Group. No formal leadership. Grou pthat using sabotage and direct action

Section 4

Question Answer
Rio Conference (June 1992) called the The Earth Summit. It was the first international meeting to address environmental issues on a global level. 172 governments participated. Discuss another form of energy, growing scarcity of water and new public transportation
Earth in the Balance(1992) Book written by Al Gore. Calls for tougher regulations and enviromental laws. Clinton said he would sign what Bush Sr. would not, but Clinton has the economy to worry about
Captain Planet(Sept. 10, 1990). Trying to get children active in the eviroment. Enemies are big oil, pollution companies and garbage. Other examples include: Spotless Susies, the Owl, Smokey the Bear
Kyoto Conference(1997) 160 in attendence. Climate-Change Conference to cut emissions and green-house gases. Idea was to limit green house gases, Clinton signed it, congress never ratified it.
Six greenhouse gases picked inthe Kyoto Conferencecarbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)