Environmental Ethics

archiebw's version from 2016-06-21 10:40


Question Answer
What do Christians believe about environmental ethics, and what is a word that might describe this view?We have dominion over it, and anthropocentric.
Who criticises the Christian approach to environmental ethics, and in which work?Peter Singer and 'Practical Ethics'
Which two philosophers saw humans as the only morally important beings, and according to who?Aristotle and Aquinas, and Peter Singer.
What is the quotation from the Bible that suggests creation has intrinsic value?"God saw that it was good"
Who believed God communicated to us through the natural world and it is a sin to destroy it, and how did he take this one step further?St. Francis of Assisi, and he believed all animals had the ability to worship God.
With what part of Genesis in particular does Peter Single take issue?The command to "subdue" the Earth.
What do some Christians see as the original reason for our environmental problems?The Fall.
What two types of love in Christianity can be applied to the environment?Love of one's neighbour and love of God.


Question Answer
Which group of people do believe that humans have complete dominion over the Earth?Right-wing fundamentalists in the USA.
Why might it be believed destruction of the earth is right, and who believes this?Because it brings closer the Second Coming, and Pastor John Hagee.
Who wrote the book 'Silent Spring' and what does it propose?Rachel Carson, and the fate of one species is linked with that of all other species.
Who named three main ethical approaches to the environment, and what are they?Alan Marshall, and libertarian extension, ecologic extension and conservative ethics.
What is another term for libertarian extension?Deep ecology.
What is encompassed within the approach of ecologic extension?The Gaia hypothesis.


Question Answer
Who originated deep ecology, and in which book?Aldo Leopold, and 'Sand Country Almanac'.
Who outlined two ecology movements, and what were they?Aarne Naess, and concerned with pollution and the depletion of natural resources, and concerned with the diversity and intrinsic value of the natural world.
Who had a Fuller-esque view extending to vegetables, and what name did he give to this philosophy'Aarne Naess and 'ecosophy'.
What are Naess's five proposals for mankind?Radically reduce the Earth's population, abandon all goals of economic growth, conserve the diversity of species, live in small and self-reliant communities and 'touch the Earth lightly'.
What right do some say humans have, in contrast to Naess?The right to reproduce as much as any other species.
Who developed 'deep green theory', and what does it involve?Richard Sylvan, and respect but not reverence for the environment.


Question Answer
What evidence for the Gaia hypothesis did James Lovelock interpret from fossils?They showed climatic change had taken place within a range narrow enough that life was never destroyed.
What could be an explanation for the existence of Gaia?God.
What theory does the Gaia hypothesis oppose?Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest.
On which disaster's site has life returned?The Chernobyl disaster.
Which of Lovelock's books is pessimistic about climate change and our reluctance to stop it, and how did he disagree with his former self within it?'The Revenge of Gaia', and he said the planet may not be able to recover.
Of what type of energy does Lovelock advocate the rapid expansion?Nuclear energy.
What are two examples of intrinsic goods for a conservative?Swimming with dolphins and seeing cherry trees in bloom.
Who argues species should be allowed to die out, and why?Michael La Bossiere, and it is part of the natural process of evolution.
To Peter Singer, on what is moral status based?Seniience.
Of what did Singer advocate the preservation, in which book, why, and what is an example?'World heritage sites'/ Unspoilt parts of the world that have 'scarcity value', 'Practical Ethics', so future generations can decide which type of environment they prefer, and a tropical rainforest.


Question Answer
Who wrote a book employing a cost-benefit analysis, what was it called, and what is a challenge to it?David Pearce, 'Blueprint for a Green Economy' and money is not an appropriate measure of environmental goods.
What is John Stuart Mill's position?The enjoyment and study of nature is at the top of his list of higher pleasures.
What type of utilitarianism might take a selfish form when applied to environmental ethics, and who does it fail to take into account?Preference utilitarianism, and animals and future generations.
What example does Peter Singer give of an ethical dilemma?One involving a hydro-electric dam across a gorge.
What is the opposite of preference utilitarianism?Qualitative utilitarianism.


Question Answer
How is Kant like most of society in his attitude towards animals?He believes it is acceptable for animals to be killed for food but not for sport.
What was Kant's position towards domestic animals, and why?They should not be treated cruelly, and this will result in us becoming cruel towards other people.
What was Kant's position on the natural world?We have a moral duty not to destroy it.
What does the first formulation of the categorical imperative implicitly forbid?The exploitation and pollution of the natural world.
Who explicitly says that respect for nature is a universal law for all rational agents, and what is he?Paul Taylor, and a neo-Kantian.
To which people might Virtue Ethicists look as examples of enviromentally good people?Rachel Carson and Aldo Leopold.


Question Answer
"The time has come to destroy those who destroy the earth.”Revelation 11
"By treating the ozone layer as a resource with zero price there never was any incentive to protect it"David Pearce, 'Blueprint for a Green Economy'