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English EXAM REVIEW

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hasanahatesenglish's version from 2017-01-29 18:16

TERMS

Question Answer
SymbolismThe use of imagery so that one object represents something else. (something of deeper meaning.)
SatirePoints out flaws in fictional society that we can apply to our own lives. (To make a change).
Tragic FlawCan seemingly be, at first, quite virtuous and admirable, but because it becomes so much so, it becomes almost as a vice, and that which was once the character’s strength, in fact becomes their weakness.
HamartiaA poor decision and then action (or inaction), caused by misguided judgement resulting from the tragic flaw influences, leads directly to the hero’s downfall.
CatharsisDerived from a word meaning to clean or to purify. Refers to any emotional discharge that brings about an emotional or spiritual renewal or relief from tension and anxiety.
PersonificationThe bestowing of human/animated qualities on an inanimate object.
ImageryA creation of pictures with words, while appealing to the senses.
AlliterationA series of familiar sounds at words’ beginnings.
JuxtapositionA side by side contrast of two opposing/ contrasting images so that each enhances/highlights/makes more obvious the other.
Half-RhymeSimilar sounding words (but not fully rhyming) for the sake of lyrical quality and flow.
Pathetic Fallacy The attribution of human feelings and responses to inanimate things or animals, in art and literature.
FoilingA character contrasting another character (usually the protagonist) to highlight particular qualities of the other character. A comparison between two things.
TragedyIs a story of human actions producing exceptional calamity and ending in the death of the character.
IronyThe character’s words or actions of a character are clear to the audience/ reader, although unknown to the character.
CharacterizationA distinct description of a fictional character.
Blank VerseA verse without rhyme (especially that uses iambic pentameter.)
DictionThe choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing.
Free VersePoetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter.
EpiphanyThe moment in a story where a character achieves realization, awareness or a feeling of knowledge after which events are seen through a different perspective in a new light in the story.
EuphonyUse of words and phrases that are distinguished as having a wide range of noteworthy melody or loveliness in the sounds that they create.
Narrative PerspectiveThe set of characteristics that determines the method an author of a story uses to relay the plot to the audience/ readers.
Comic reliefThe act of which there is a humorous character/ scene/ witty dialogue in an otherwise serious part of the novel/ play to relieve tension.
IdiosyncrasiesA distinctive or peculiar feature/ characteristic of a place or a thing.
ProseA form of language that has no formal metrical structure. Normal everyday speech is spoken in “prose”.
AssonanceThe repetition of a vowel sound, the words be close enough for the repetition of the sounds to be noticeable.
MoodCertain feelings or vibes through words or descriptions that the reader feels/ picks up on.
ConflictA problem or moral dilemma that must be solved. Person vs self, Person vs person, Person vs environment (supernatural, nature, society)
CacophonyWords with sharp, harsh, hissing, and unmelodious sounds primarily those of harsh and inharmonious sounds.
ClimaxThe peak/ highest point in the story that everything leads up to.
AllusionReference to another work of literature/ event of historical significance. It is understood that all will understand its implications.
Scatalogical humourRaunchy humour, often involving references to sexual matters.
RepetitionRepeats the same words or phrases a few times to make an idea clearer.
VernacularThe language spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region.
Iambic pentameterDescribes the rhythm that the words establish in that line, which is measured in small groups of syllables called “feet”.
ConsonanceTakes place in a quick succession, (pitter patter). The repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or a phrase.
ToneIs an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience, generally conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject. Can be formal/informal/sad/excited.
Internal RhymeA rhyme involving a word in the middle of the line and another at the end or the line or in the middle of the next.
SettingBoth the time and geographic location in which the story takes place. Helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story.
Suspended disbeliefTo believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment.
Turning points/ crisisA point where there is a change in direction or motion.
ForeshadowingA hint at something happening later on in the plot.
Theme(Loss of innocence, good vs evil) Underlying meaning.
PathosStimulation of deep sympathy in the audience for the characters.
Stichomythia A technique in verse drama in which sequences of single alternating lines, or half-lines are given to alternating characters.
HyperboleA figure of speech that involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.
Aside When a character’s dialogue is spoken by not heard by any other actors on the stage and are useful for giving the audience information about the other characters onstage or the action of the plot.
OnomatopoeiaThe rhetorical effect of a word from a sound associated with what its name is (zap)!
LyricalExpressing deep emotion (often rhymes).
Catalogue imagerySpecific brand names.
StyleThe way a writer writes and it is the technique which an individual author uses in their writing.
Discrepant awarenessKnowing something that the character does not.
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Historical references

Question Answer
Divine OrderThere was a chain of being not to be tampered with. God was at the top of this chain, with Kings and Queens right beneath Him, and peasants and paupers were at the very bottom. People were NOT supposed to try and “change their stars”. What you were born into is where you should stay.
PuritansLived in the frugal life of pioneers. They were a class of protestants, which arose in England in the 16th century. They were strict Calvinists in doctrine (believed in predestination because of sin- man lives in misery/slavery). They were very somber and eventually became a political party but were repressed in England. The Puritans also believed that God presided over their church and and their legal matters. Puritan justice is an absurd and horrific farce. They also believed everything in the bible to be literally true.
JacobeansA very puritanical religious order in the Elizabethan times. Believed in divine order.
McCarthyismSatirical of the then-present practice of pointing fingers at so-called Communists in the U.S. during the Cold War. America and Russia were based on opposing ideologies: capitalism and communism. In 1947, the Cold War began, and the two powers began to treat each other as enemies. In America, anyone who had ever flirted with socialist or communist beliefs was suddenly seen as a traitor to the American way of life.
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Authors

Question Answer
William ShakespeareBorn in Stratford, England. (April 23, 1564). Married to Anne Hathaway. Successful actors had to be skilled at fencing, playing instrumental music and singing. MacBeth takes places in the Medieval Era.
Arthur MillerWrote the Crucible and spoke out about McCarthyism. Was deeply affected by the Great Depression and his writing typically reflects on the poverty that he grew up around. Attended University of Michigan. Miller was profoundly disturbed by McCarthyism, first as an observer, but later as a victim. The Crucible is set in Puritan New England 1692, in the small settlement of Salem, Massachusetts.
William GoldingWrote Lord of the Flies as a satire teaching readers about how people can be evil. The atomic war idea makes this novel to be futuristic because there hasn’t been a WW3. This does not make the novel unbelievable because a third world war is possible. Golding makes it clear that bombs certainly can destroy us, but we do not need such highly technical means for self destruction. The boys on the island are more capable of ruining themselves and their environment with no greater tools than what nature provides.
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