English 3 AP Argumentation

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1) What is retrospection?


Retrospection is a contemplation of past events or circumstances.


2) What is ambiguity?


Ambiguity is an uncertainty that leaves the text open to interpretation.


3) To what does in medias res refer?


In medias res means “in the middle of the action. Writers often use this technique to capture their reader’s attention, and then they use flashbacks to fill in the gaps in the narrative.


4) What is a motif?


A motif is a recurring element of a literary text that serves to unify elements of that text. An action, character type, detail, image, situation, subject, symbol, and/or theme may serve as a motif.


5) What is emphatic order?


Emphatic order is a method of organization in which the support is arranged in order of importance – usually saving the best for last – so as to construct an argument, point by point, and leave the audience with a lasting impression.


6) What is exemplification?


Exemplification is a pattern of development that uses a single example or a group of examples to support or clarify a thesis.


7) To what does context refer?


The context refers to the situation – the time, place, and/or audience – in which a text is either written or read.


8) What is a point of view?


Point of view_ refers to the angle from which a story is told. The vantage point is typically first- or third- person.


9) What is bias?


Bias is a predisposition, or prejudice, toward one side of an issue. Bias may also refer to a disposition toward or against a person based on gender, race, religion, and/or socio-economic class.


10) What is coherence?


Coherence is a logical, orderly, and consistent relationship among the parts of a text. Coherence enables a reader to follow the writer’s train of thought. Writers achieve coherence through the use of transitions.


11) To what does shift refer?


Shift refers to a change in the passage. For example, point of view may shift from 3rd person to first person; diction may shift from formal to informal; syntax may shift from short to long sentences.


12) What is data?


Data means facts or pieces of information; it generally refers to evidence; data may also be referred to as grounds.


13) What is pace?


Pace is the rate, quick or slow, that a story is told or that an idea is presented.


14) What is a thesis?


A thesis is the statement of the main idea of an essay. A thesis is a precise opinion about a limited topic; it is also a debatable claim. Other synonyms for thesis include central idea, assertion, and main idea.


15) To what does cite refer?


To cite means to quote someone, preferably an authority, in order to support, prove, or confirm an assertion.


16) What is atmosphere?


Atmosphere , or mood, is the general feeling created by a text.


17) What is anecdotal evidence?


Anecdotal evidence is the use of nonscientific observations or personal experiences as support for an assertion. Anecdotal evidence cannot be documented; its effectiveness is dependent on the credibility of the person presenting the information.


18) What are transitions?


Transitions are words or phrases used by writers to move from one topic to another. Writers use transitions to enable readers to follow their train of thought. Transitions provide coherence and are used both within and between paragraphs.


19) To what does occasion refer?


The occasion is the reason for writing, as well as the context in which the writing takes place.


20) To whom does audience refer?


Audience refers to the person or people who read a written text or listen to a spoken text. The audience is capable of responding to the text and may or may not be the intended receiver of the message.


FLASHCARDS: Terms & Definitions—Argumentation


1) To what does refutation refer?


In classical rhetoric, refutation is the part of a speech in which the speaker anticipates and counters objections to points being raised.


2) To what does ethos refer?


Ethos refers to the ethical appeal, which goes to the credibility of the speaker, the writer, and/or the narrator of a text.


3) To what does logos refer?


Logos refers to logical appeal and is based on the rational structure of the argument and/or its support of the central idea.


4) To what does pathos refer?


Pathos refers to the emotional appeal of an argument.


5) What is juxtaposition?


Juxtaposition is the placement of two things side by side for comparison and/or emphasis.


6) What is innuendo?


Innuendo is an indirect or subtle, and usually derogatory, implication. An innuendo is an insinuation.


7) What is deductive reasoning?


Deductive reasoning begins with a generalization and concludes with specific instances that demonstrate the general principle.


8) What is inductive reasoning?


Inductive reasoning is the type of reasoning that starts with a number of specific examples and then demonstrates how they collectively illustrate a general principle.


9) What is propaganda?


Propaganda is information that is widely spread for the sole purpose of promoting a specific cause, or damaging another cause.


10) What is polysyndeton?


Polysyndeton is the deliberate use of a series of conjunctions, usually for emphasis. For example: “nor sun nor moon nor wind nor rain.”


11) What is a syllogism?


A syllogism is a form of logical reasoning from an inarguable premise. A syllogism consists of three parts: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion.


12) What is a euphemism?


A euphemism is a gentler word or expression for something painful or unpleasant.


13) What is a digression?


A digression is a remark or series of remarks that wander from the main point of a discussion or argument.


14) What is a cliché?


A cliché is an overused expression, such as “stubborn as a mule” or “strong as an ox.”


15) What is a hasty generalization?


A hasty generalization is a conclusion that is not justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence.


FLASHCARDS: Terms & Definitions—Figures of Speech


1) What is a metaphor?


A metaphor is comparing two objects by referring to one thing as if it were another. Example: “Erik is a fish in the pool.”


2) What is a paradox?


A paradox is a statement that initially seems contradictory and nonsensical but upon further examination, makes sense. Example: “We must fight for peace.”


3) What is a conceit?


A conceit is an elaborate, extended metaphor.


4) What is a malapropism?


A malapropism is the confused, usually comic, misuse of a word or words. Example: “I am not under the affluence of alcohol.”


5) What is situational irony?


Situational irony is the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen. Example: Being robbed by your accountant.


6) What is synecdoche?


Synecdoche is the use of a part to represent the whole, or vice versa. Example: “Ten head of cattle” refers to ten complete animals and not just ten heads.


7) What is verbal irony?


Verbal irony is the contrast between what is said and what is intended. Typically, the writer or speaker means the opposite of what is said.


8) What is wit?


Wit refers to an intellectual form of humor. Basically, it is any kind of verbal cleverness.


9) What is irony?


Irony is the contrast between appearance and reality.


10) What is litotes?


Litotes is a form of understatement, typically achieved by negating an affirmation. Example: “A fact of no small importance.”


11) What is metonymy?


Metonymy is replacing the name of something with something closely related to it. Example: Using “the white house” to refer to the entire presidential administration.


12) What is personification?


Personification is the giving of human characteristics to something that is nonhuman. Example: “Love is blind.”


13) What is consonance?


Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds following different vowel sounds. Example: “pitter patter” or “stroke of luck.”


14) What is dramatic irony?


Dramatic irony is the contrast between what a reader (or audience) knows and what a character knows.


15) What is ellipsis?


Ellipsis refers to a gap in chronology. It is left to the reader’s imagination to determine what happened during the missing portion of the narrative.


16) What is hyperbole?


Hyperbole is an over-exaggeration used to make a point. Example: “I almost coughed up a lung.”


17) What is apostrophe?


Apostrophe is the direct address to an inanimate, missing, or dead person or object. Example: “Death be not proud.”


18) What is anaphora?


Anaphora is the repetition of words, phrases, or clauses at the beginning of successive lines or sentences. Example: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. It was the age of reason, it was the age of foolishness.”


19) What is alliteration?


Alliteration is the repetition of the initial consonant sound. Example: "Around the rock the ragged rascal ran."


20) What is amplification?


Amplification is a rhetorical figure involving the dramatic ordering of words that often emphasizes some sort of progression or expansion. Example: “It’s a bird; it’s a plane; it’s Superman!”


21) What is meiosis?


Meiosis is a form of understatement usually achieved by referring to something in terms of less importance than it actually deserves. Example: In Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio refers to his fatal wound as a “scratch.”


22) What is onomatopoeia?


Onomatopoeia is the creation and use of words that sound like what they mean. Example: “quack” and “rustle”


23) What is figurative language?


Figurative language is the modification of literal language in order to achieve an intended effect. Figurative language is used to connote meaning.


24) To what does antithesis refer?


Antithesis is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases. Example: “Not that I loved Caesar less but that I loved Rome more.”


25) What is chiasmus?


Chiasmus is achieving contrast through reverse parallelism. Example: "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.”


26) What is assonance?


Assonance is the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds, often in stressed syllables, followed by different consonant sounds. Example: “From the molten-golden notes…”


27) What are figures of speech?


Figures of speech are the literary devices used to connote meaning beyond the dictionary definition.


28) What are rhetorical figures?


Rhetorical figures (also known as schemes) are changes in standard word order or patterns. Rhetorical figures are usually associated with syntax.


29) What is an oxymoron?


An oxymoron is the pairing of two opposites to create a compressed, emphatic paradox. Examples: “a deafening silence” and “to make haste slowly”


30) What is an implied metaphor?


Implied metaphor is a less-direct comparison in which the tenor is implied rather than explicitly stated. For example, “Shut your trap” uses implied metaphor, in which the mouth of the listener in not actually mentioned.


31) What is an analogy?


An analogy is the use of something more familiar to explain something new and/or complex. The point of comparison is used to demonstrate the similarities between the two entities.


32) What is an allusion?


An allusion is an indirect reference to something. Allusion typically refer to a literary text, a work of art, the Bible, history, events, or people.


33) What is a simile?


A simile is a figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike. Examples: “you were as brave as a lion” or “they fought like cats and dogs”


34) What is hypophora?


Hypophora is using rhetorical questions to disarm or discredit one’s opponent in an adversarial manner. Example: “When will you be satisfied? When will you open your eyes to the truth?”