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rohit11may's version from 2015-05-18 21:51

Material Properties Definitions

Question Answer
StrengthThe ability of a material to stand up to forces being applied without it bending, breaking, shattering or deforming in any way.
ElasticityThe ability of a material to absorb force and flex in different directions, returning to its original position.
DuctilityThe ability of a material to change shape (deform) usually be stretching along its length.
Tensile StrengthThe ability of a material to stretch without breaking or snapping.
MalleabililyThe ability of a material to be reshaped in all directions without cracking.
ToughnessA characteristic of a material that does not break or shatter when receiving a blow or under a sudden shock.
HardnessThe ability of a material to resist scratching, wear and tear and indentation.
ConductivityThe ability of a material to conduct electricity.
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Heat Treatment

Question Answer
HardeningReferring to phase diagram, heating and keeping at an appropriate temperature until all pearlite transforms to austenite, followed by rapid quenching in water/oil. INCREASES TOUGHNESS, BUT BECOMES BRITTLE
TemperingHeating steel that has been hardened and quenched for a period of time to reduce brittleness. High 'Degrees' = High Ductility, Low strength/Hardness and Low "Degrees" = Low ductility, high strength and hardness.
AnnealingHeat steel to high temperature and cool it in air to INCREASE DUCTILITY AND TOUGHNESS, but LOW HARDNESS.
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Materials + Properties, Uses

Metals

Question Answer
Properties of Low Carbon Steel?Weakest steel, stronger than most ferrous metals. Easy to machine, tough, cheap, cannot be hardened/tempered.
What are some uses of Low Carbon Steel?Car bodies, Screws/nails, panels for fridge doors
Properties of Medium Carbon Steel?Strong, tough, hard, fairly cheap, harder to form than mild steel. Cannot be hardened
What are some uses of Medium Carbon Steel?Gears, railway wheels, high strength tubing
Properties of High Carbon Steel?Stronger/Harder than medium carbon steel. Not as tough as medium carbon steel.Can be hardened/tempered.
What are some uses of High Carbon Steel?Ball bearings, Knives, Hammers
Properties of Cast Iron?Hard, sometimes brittle, good compressive strength. Melts easily, can be casted. Cheap. Poor corrosion resistance.
What are some uses of Cast Iron?Engine blocks, vices, anvils
Properties of Stainless Steel?Hard, difficult to machine, expensive, good corrosion resistance.
What are some uses of Stainless Steel?Sinks, kettles, cutlery
Properties of Aluminium?Excellent corrosion resistance, lighter, more expensive than steel
What are some uses of Aluminium?Aircraft structures, soft drink cans
Properties of Titanium?Stronger than aluminium, more expensive than aluminium, excellent corrosion resistance, light
What are some uses of Titanium?High performance aircraft structures.
Properties of Zinc?Low melting point, can be die casted, alloyed with aluminium to increase strength
What are some uses of Zinc?Camera bodies, door handles on cars, fuel pumps
Properties of Pure Copper?Good conductor of electricity, flexible, not very strong
What are some uses of Pure Copper?Wiring, pipework
Properties of Bronze?Alloy of copper and tin, used for casting
What are some uses of Bronze?Pressure valve bodies, statues, door knobs
Properties of Brass?Alloy of copper and zinc, difficult to cast, easily machined
What are some uses of Brass?Pressure valve bodies, statues, door knobs
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Polymers

Thermosetting Polymers

Question Answer
Properties of Melamine Formaldehyde?Thermosetting polymer, harder and more rigid than thermoplastics, cannot be reshaped after moulding, cannot be recycled.
What are some uses of Melamine Formaldehyde?Impact resistant plastic plates, laminate coverings for kitchen workshops.
Properties of Phenol Formaldehyde?Thermosetting polymer, harder and more rigid than thermoplastics, cannot be reshaped after moulding, cannot be recycled, brittle.
What are some uses of Phenol Formaldehyde?Heat resistant parts for kitchen appliances.
Properties of Urea formaldehyde?Thermosetting polymer, harder and more rigid than thermoplastics, cannot be reshaped after moulding, cannot be recycled.
What are some uses of Urea formaldehyde?Artificial pigments, electrical fittings.
Properties of Epoxy Resin?Thermosetting polymer, harder and more rigid than thermoplastics, cannot be reshaped after moulding, cannot be recycled.
What are some uses of Epoxy Resin?PCB, can be cold casted to form electrical insulators.
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Thermoplastics

Question Answer
Properties of Polypropylene?High impact strength, flexible.
What are some uses of Polypropylene?Children's toys, Plastic Chairs.
Properties of HIPS?Easy to mould, light, strong.
What are some uses of HIPS?Vacuum formed packaging/casing.
Properties of Arcylic?Transparent, can be coloured with pigments, hard wearing
What are some uses of Arcylic?Machine guards, plastic windows.
Properties of Nylon?Low friction, good resistance to wear.
What are some uses of Nylon?Bearings, gear wheels.
Properties of HDPE?Strong
What are some uses of HDPE?Bowls, buckets.
Properties of LDPE?Softer than HDPE, more flexible and less strong than HDPE.
What are some uses of LDPE?Detergent bottles, carrier bags.
Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride?Stiff, hard wearing.
What are some uses of Polyvinyl Chloride?Chemical tanks, coverings for electric cables, packaging.
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Ceramics

Question Answer
Properties of Ceramics?Oxides, nitrides or carbides of metals and are inorganic. Excellent corrosion resistance, good strength in compression, hard. Brittle. Good insulators. Used where electrical insulators are needed and fleixbility isnt required. Difficult to machine due to hardness, frequently oulded, cannot be recyled.
What are some uses of Ceramics?Tools for grinding and cutting, electrical insulators such as spark plugs, lenses (glass), building materials such as cement, semiconductors for use in electrical devices.
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Composites

Question Answer
Properties of Fibreglass?Thin fibres of ceramic glass stuck to epoxy resin or a polyester. Strong material, can be formed into complex shapes. Made by moulding sheets of fibre material and soaking it in resin. Cannot be recyled.
What are some uses of Fibreglass?-
Properties of Carbon Reinforced Plastic?Stronger than fibreglass.
What are some uses of Carbon Reinforced Plastic?Used to make racing car bodies, helmets and bullet proof vests.
Properties of Reinforced Concrete?Concrete has good compressive strength, but poor strength under tension. Steel is the opposite. The strength of concrete is increased with steel under tension.
What are some uses of Reinforced Concrete?-
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