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Energy Resources

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-10-18 15:36

Section 1

Question Answer
16%Renewable (16%)
84%Non-renewable
Fossil FuelsCoal, Oil and Gas are called .....
Fossil Fuelsthey have been formed from the fossilized remains of prehistoric plants and animals
Fossil FuelsThey provide around 66% of the world's electrical power, and 95% of the world's total energy demands
Coalprovides around 28% of our energy, and oil provides 40%.
Crude oilAlso known as Petroleum
Crude oilis easier to get out of the ground than coal, as it can flow along pipes.
Crude oil This also makes it cheaper to transport.
Coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt. Oil and gas can be burnt directlyHow Fossil Fuels Work
Burn fuel> heat water to make steam> steam turns turbine>turbine turns generator>electrical power sent around the countryIMEMORIZE MO TO
sedimentsAccumulations of dead marine organisms on the ocean floor were covered by
SHALESandstone formed on top of
MethanePrimary component of natural gas
Dispersed oilMuddy rock gradually formed rock (shale) containing
Petroleum Oiloften called crude oil, or just oil
Stratigraphyis the study of rock layers (or strata)
Seismic Technologyuses sound waves to reveal what lies deep in the ground
Thumpers are used to create shock waves instead of dynamite
(1) Permitting and Land Leasing, (2) Drilling, (3) Well Completion, (4) Casing the Well & (5) Cementation5 Ways of Retrieving Oil
Well CompletionAllow oil into the well so that it can be brought to the surface
Deep SteamAlso known as "Huff and Puff"
Deep SteamMay produce an additional 10% of the original oil
(1) Cracking, (2) Boilers and Furnaces, (3) Cooling towers, (4) Heat Exchangers, (5) Wastewater treatment5 Plant Equipment and Processes
CrackingHeat is used to break apart the chemical bonds of the hydrocarbon molecules in feedstocks.
Boilers and FurnacesFeed stocks changed from solid pellets to liquid or gas
Cooling towersUsed to return the water used in chemical processing back to normal temperature
Heat Exchangersdevices that can speed up production and cut down on the need to process waste heat at the same time
Heat Exchangerslarge pipes with smaller pipes inside
Wastewater treatmentensure that the water leaving the plant is as clean as the water coming into the plant
Bitumen a thick and sticky heavy oil
Oil ShaleOily rocks that contain a solid mix of hydrocarbons.
Tar sandMixture of clay, sand water and bitumen
(1) Cleaner than coal, (2) Energy dense, (3) Liquid3 Advantages of Petroleum
(1) Carbon Dioxide, (2) Oil Spills, (3) Impurities3 Disadvantages of Petroleum
Natural Gas50-90% methane
Natural GasCleanest of fossil fuels
Natural GasApproximate 200 year supply
(1) Lower carbon dioxide, (2) Cleaner than oil & coal, (3) Heating3 Advantages of Natural Gas
(1) Hydraulic fracturing, (2) Exploration, (3) Methane3 Disadvantages of Natural Gas
CoalSolid fossil fuel formed in several stages
CoalLand plants that lived 300-400 million years ago
CoalSubjected to intense heat and pressure over many millions of years
CoalMostly carbon, small amounts of sulfur
PEAT Partially altered plant material; very smoky when burned, low energy
LIGNITE COALSoft, brown coal; moderate energy
BITUMINOUS COALSoft, black coa with high energyl usually used in power generators & industries
ANTHRACITE COAL Hard and black coal
BITUMINOUS COALExtensively used as a fuel because of its high heat content and large supplies
ANTHRACITE COAL Highly desirable fuel because of its high heat content and low sulfur content
Fossil FuelsHave high energy density
(1) Large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place cheaply, (2) Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy, (3) Gas-fired power stations are very efficient, (4) A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere4 Advantages of Using Fossil Fuels
(1) Pollution, (2) Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide, which contributes to the "greenhouse effect", warming the Earth, (3) Burning coal produces sulfur dioxide, a gas that contributes to acid rain, (4) • Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Strip mining destroys large areas of the landscape4 Disadvantages of Using Fossil Fuels
Watershed is an area of land from which all runoff drains, or 'sheds' to the same river, lake, or other body of water.
ShedsAlso known as runoff drains
Runoff-Water travels downhill and enters into rivers and lakes
All of our freshwater starts as precipitation, which moves continually through the hydrologic cycle.Where does our water come from
Ground Waterflows underground as springs or underground rivers
AquiferWater underground is stored in.........
Surface and underground water bodies form an inter-connected system
Surface waterrecharges groundwater storage
Aquifera body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move easily
Hydroelectric powerHydropower
Hydroelectric powerThrough this, the energy in falling water is converted into electricity without “using up” the water.
Dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake.
Kinetic energyis the energy of motion. A
Mechanical energyis a form of kinetic energy, such as in a machine.
Hydroelectric power (hydropower) systems convert the kinetic energy in flowing water into electric energy.
Turbinesare advanced, very efficient waterwheels. They are often enclosed to further capture water’s energy.
Flow ratethe quantity of water flowing in a given time
Headthe height from which the water falls
Flow rate & HeadThe amount of electricity that can be generated by a hydropower plant depends on two factors:
Farther, More PowerThe ______ the water falls, the _________ it has.
Directly proportionalPower production is considered to be ____________________ to river flow
Geothermal energy is heat stored within the earth.
Geothermal energy It’s availability is limited to areas near tectonic plates
IcelandThe most abundant place to find geothermal energy is ..............
Volcanoes, hot springs, and geysers Geothermal energy is found in the the form of ....................
(1) Hydrothermal, (2) Geopressurized, (3) Hot dry rock, (4) Magma4 Types of geothermal resources
(1) Earth’s core heat, (2) Water → steam → drive electrical generators, (3) Area specific & (4) TurbinesHow Geothermal Works
Larderello, Italy (1904) First Geothermal Power Plant
(1) Directly for heating, (2) To generate electricityGeothermal energy can be used:
memorize

Section 2