lilypoh's version from 2016-04-14 06:46



Question Answer
HypothalamusThe hypothalamus is responsible for body temperature, hunger, moods and the release of hormones from other glands; and also controls thirst, sleep and sex drive.
Parathyroidmaintenance of calcium level in plasma; stimulates calcium reabsorption in kidneys; activates Vitamin D
ThymusThis gland plays a role in the function of the adaptive immune system and the maturity of the thymus, and produces T-cells.
Location of thymusIn the thorax
Thymus HormoneThymic Factor (TF), Thymic Humoral Factor (THF), Thymosine, Thymopoietin
PancreasThis gland produces the insulin that helps control blood sugar levels.(specifically in the islets of Langerhans, specialised cells that form the endocrine part of the pancreas)
Location of Pancreasbehind and slightly below stomach, between duodenum and spleen, connected to duodenum by pancreatic duct Hormones
Insulin and glucagonhelps glucose enter cells thus regulating blood sugar levels.
ThyroidThe thyroid produces hormones associated with calorie burning and heart rate.
AdrenalAdrenal glands produce the hormones that control sex drive and cortisol, the stress hormone. Its to support the sympathetic nervous system.
PituitaryConsidered the "master control gland," the pituitary gland controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger growth.
PinealAlso called the thalamus, this gland produces serotonin derivatives of melatonin, which affects sleep. controls body rhythms responds to sunlight
OvariesOnly in women, the ovaries secrete estrogen, testosterone and progesterone, the female sex hormones.
TestesOnly in men, the testes produce the male sex hormone, testosterone, and produce sperm.
estrogen (or estradiol)is the main sex hormone. It causes puberty, prepares the body and uterus for pregnancy, and regulates the menstrual cycle. During menopause, estrogen level changes cause many of the uncomfortable symptoms women experience.
Progesterone is similar to estrogen but is not considered the main sex hormone. Like estrogen, it assists with the menstrual cycle and plays a role in pregnancy.
Cortisolit has been called the "stress hormone" because of the way it assists the body in responding to stress. This is just one of several functions of this important hormone.
MelatoninIt levels change throughout the day, increasing after dark to trigger the responses that cause sleep.
Testosteroneis the main sex hormone in men. It causes puberty, increases bone density, triggers facial hair growth, and causes muscle mass growth and strength.
Pituitarysituated at the base of the brain. closely connected to the hypothalamus; has two hormone secreting lobes, the anterior and posterior.
The two hormone lobesAnterior lobe hormones, posterior lobe hormones
Anterior lobe hormonesHuman growth hormone (HGH), Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), Thyrotrophin (TSH), Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), Gonadotrophins (gonad/sex organ hormones), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), Intestitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)luteinsing hormone in men
Posterior lobe hormonesAntidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin), Oxytocin
Anterior lobe hormonesregulates height and growth; main controller along with genes of final height of a person
Melanocyte-stimulatig hormone (MSH)stimulates production of melanin in basal layer of the skin
Thyrotrophin (TSH)controls thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)controls adrenal cortex
Prolactin or lactogenic hormone (LTH)production of milk during lactation
Gonadotrophine (Gonad/sex organ hormones)control sexual development and organs (ovaries and testes)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen and to ovulate in women and stimulates sperm production in men.
Luteinising hormone (LH)stimulates ovaries to produce the corpus luteum from ruptured follicle and produce progesterone
Intestitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) / Luteinising hormone in menstimulates sperm production and secretion of testosterone
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin)regulation of water absorption in kidneys
Oxytocincontracts mammary glands when suckling begins, to release milk secreted into ducts; contraction of muscles of uterus to begin childbirth an during it.
Thyroxin, and Triiodothyronineproduced in response to TSH from anterior lobe of Pituitary Gland
Calcitoninmaintenance of calcium and phosphorus balance.
Hormone for parathyroid glandsParathormone
ADRENAL GLANDS situatedone on top of each kidney NB split into two parts, adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
Adrenal cortexregulates salts in body, especially sodium chloride and potassium.
Adrenal cortex hormonesMineralocorticoids — aldosterone (steroids)
Glucocorticoids (steroids) / (cortisol and cortisone)produced in response to ACTH (from pituitary, anterior lobe); metabolises carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Sex hormones (steroids); femaleoestrogen and progesterone (some normal in male);
Sex hormones (steroids); maletestosterone (small amounts secreted in the ovaries in females)
Adrenal medulla hormoneAdrenaline and noradrenaline
Function of adrenaline and noradrenalineoften known as the stress hormones, they prepare the body for 'fight or flight' by speeding up heart rate, slowing digestive and urinary systems, increasing blood pressure and blood sugar level. Adrenaline is a powerful vasoconstrictor i.e. it constricts blood vessels in order to increase blood pressure.



Question Answer
Thyroid Glandshypersecretion known as Graves disease or thyrotoxicosis (hyper-thyroidism — increase in metabolic rate heart rate, anxiety, intolerance of heat plus raised temperature, frequent bowel action); hyposecretion — body systems slow below normal speed, cretinism (at birth) or myxoedema (disorder caused later in life by untreated cretinism), goitre - thyroid enlargement.
Calcitoninhypersecretion causes lowering of blood calcium level by inhibiting loss of calcium from bone.
Parathyroidhypersecretion — hyperparathyroidism. Softened bones and thus spontaneous bone fractures
hyposecretion — hypoparathyroidismabnormally low blood calcium levels; tetany (spasms in hands and feet)
Anterior lobe hormoneshypersecretion causes gigantism or acromegaly: hyposecretion causes dwarfism
Gonadotrophine (Gonad/sex organ hormones)
Intestitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) / Luteinising hormone in menpolycystc ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, fibroids
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) - hyposecretiondiabetes insipidus
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) - hypersecretionoedema (swelling)
Adrenal cortex mulfunction of mineralocortcoids-aldosterone(steroids) hypersecretion —kidney failure, high blood pressure, too much potassium in blood causing abnormal heart beat;
Adrenal cortex mulfunction of mineralocortcoids-aldosterone(steroids) hyposecretion —Addison's disease; muscular atrophy and weakness body systems slow down.
Glucocorticoids (steroids) / (cortisol and cortisone) hypersecretionCushing's syndrome; stunted growth, moon-shaped face, muscular atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus.
Sex hormones (steroids); femalehirsutism, amenorrhoea (hypersecretion of testosterone in women)
Sex hormones (steroids); malemuscle atrophy and beast growth (hypersecretion of oestrogen in men);
Sex hormones - male - hyposecretionaddison's disease
Malfunction of Pancreas - hyposecretiondiabetes mellitus (high blood sugar level and high urine production); fatigue; weight loss; coma;
Malfunction of Pancreas - hypersecretionhypoglycaemia (low blood sugar level) including symptoms of hunger, sweating; in serious cases may lead to coma.
Pineal bodyjet-lagged feeling; depression, SAD — seasonal affective disorder.
Thymus malfunctionlowered immunity and/or stress
Polycystic ovarian syndromeirregular menstrual cycle, due to stimulation, multiple growth of follicular ovarian cysts and sometimes infertility, anlearged ovaries and often high levels of oestrogen; 50% of patients are obese and become HIRSUTE;
Stressis a treat to the body and the body responds to it like any other danger.
Adrenal medullait releases adrenaline and noradrenaline to help us with the fight or flight responses.
The manifestation of adrenaline in the bodyis faster heart rate and breathing, sweating, glucose rush from the liver and heightened senses.
What is the prolonged stress in womenamenorrhoea
What is the prolonged stress in menlow production of sperm
Diabetes mellitus type 1unable to produce insulin in pancreas. symptoms will be high blood lucose leve, excessive thirst, high urine output, tiredness and weight loss.
Diabetes mellitus type 2the body cells do no respond properly to insulin and the pancreas my not produce enough. linked closely to obesity. symptoms are as type 1 but may not be as obvious and take longer to develop. can be controlled by a healthy diet and physical activity.