bhom14's version from 2017-12-05 19:55

Section 1

Question Answer
GLUT1RBCs, brain, cornea, placenta
GLUT2pancreas, liver, kidney, small intestine
GLUT3brain, placenta
GLUT4adipose tissues, striated muscle
GLUT 5spermatocytes
which GLUT transporter carries fructoseGLUT 5 "Five for Fructose"
which GLUT transporter is bidirectional?GLUT 2 "bi"
List organs that need glucose in order of which organ takes up glucose first (highest need)"BRICK-L" Brain, RBCs, Intestine, Cornea, Kidney, Liver (liver is last)
In what conditions is C-peptide increasedendogenous insulin release (i.e. insulinoma, use of sulfonylureas)
What receptor and downstream pathway does insulin induce when binding to its receptor?Binding to dimerized Tyrosine kinase receptor. Pathway: RAS/MAP kinase & PP3K pathways
Insulin-induced PP3K pathway leads to....upregulation of GLUT4 & lipid/glycogen/protein synthesis
Insulin-induced RAS/MAP pathway leads to...cell growth, DNA synthesis
foramen cecum is the remnant ofthyroglossal duct. Persistence of this leads to a thyroglossal cyst (enlarged mass in anterior of neck that moves with swallowing)
Thryoid and parafollicular C cells are derived fromthe endoderm
parafollicular C cells secretecalcitonin (to reduce calcium levels)
Adrenal cortex is derived frommesoderm
Adrenal medulla is derived fromneural cells
Basophilic anterior pituitary hormonesB-FLAT: "Basophil - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH"
Acidophilic anterior pituitary hormonesa PiG = "acidophils - Prolactin, GH"
which subunit of the endocrine hormones determines its specificity?beta subunit
which is insulin response more effective with oral vs IV glucose?due to release of incretins (GIP, GLP-1) s/p meals. These hormones increase beta cell sensitivity to glucose.
which adrenergic activity inhibits insulin release? which stimulates it?alpha 2 decreases insulin; beta 2 increases insulin.
glucagon release is inhibited by....insulin, hyperglycemia, SOMATOSTATIN
Tonic (constant) GnRH ____ HPG axissuppresses
Prolactin is structurally homologous to what other hormone?GH
Function of prolactinstimulates milk production; inhibits GnRH (inhibits ovulation and spermatogenesis)
Prolactin increases with stimulation from what hormone? inhibited from what hormoneProlactin stimulated by TRH, inhibited by dopamine. **Estrogen stimulates prolactin secretion.
what effect does GH have?stimulates linear growth and muscle mass via IGF-1 secretion by liver. Increase insulin resistance
Grehlin functionmakes you hungry. stimulates GH release
GH secretion inhibited by what other hormones?glucose, somatostatin
GH secretion stimulated bysomatoMEDIN
what health problems increases ghrelin productionsleep deprivation, Prader-Willi
Leptin functionkeeps you thin. increases satiety. Sleep deprivation or starvation decreases leptin
Endocannabinoids function and receptor locationincreases appetite "cannabinoids causes the munches". receptors at hypothalamus and nucleus accumbent
ADH: what receptors regulate BP vs serum osmolarityV1 = BP; V2 = serum osmolarity
where are ADH receptors located in the kidneys?principle cells of collecting duct.
ADH levels are _________ in central DIdecreased
ADH levels are _________ in nephrogenic DIincreased or normal
what is desmopressinADH analog. Desmopressin is like vasopressin

Section 2