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(1) Growth and development, (2) Reproduction, (3) Metabolism, (4) Biological clock, (5) Contraction of cardiac & smooth muscle (6) Glandular secretionGeneral Functions of Hormones
The Endocrine SystemRegulates long-term processes such as GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT & REPRODUCTION
(1) Direct, (2) Paracrine, (3) Edocrine3 types of communication
Direct communicationCommunication between one cell to another
Paracrine communicationCommunication between tissues
Endocrine communicationCommunication from organ to organ
(1) Negative, (2) Antagonistic, (3) PositiveFeedback mechanisms regulate the secretion of hormones
(1) Peptide & (2) Steroids2 types Endocrine hormones
Peptide (Non-steroid) The proteins are water soluble thus resulting to melting
Peptide (Non-steroid) Needs carrier protein and needs energy
Peptide (Non-steroid) Hormone that can't enter your cell
SteroidHormone that freely enters your cell
SteroidBinds with your DNA
Negative Feedbackhalts/stops the process of hormones
Positive FeedbackAdds more hormones to your body to maintain homeostasis
Negative feedbackthe outcome of a process feeds back on the system, shutting down the process.
Positive feedbackthe outcome of a process feeds back on the system, further stimulating the process.
Antagonistic feedbackone hormone has an opposite effect of another hormone on the system.
GlucagonThe alpha cell of the islets of langerhads
InsullinThe beta cell of the islets of langerhads
Oxytocin (OCT)Example of positive feedback
(1) Local hormones, (2) Endocrine Hormones, (3) Neurotransmitters3 messenger molecules
Local hormoneschemicals that allow cells adjacent to one another to communicate
Endocrine Hormoneschemicals released to the blood to stimulate a response in distant cells.
Neurotransmitterschemicals that cross the synaptic gap between two neurons
Endocrine hormonesProduced by endocrine (“ductless”) glands and secreted into the bloodstream.
Endocrine hormonesmay affect a wide array of target cells to produce multiple effects.  Many endocri
Insulin can be stored in liver as form of glycogen
Insulinfor production of protein
Type I diabetesDiabetes that has no insulin at all
Type IIDiabetes that has insulin but does not regulate it
Thalamus receives sensory information, relays some to the hypothalamus.
Hypothalamus monitors the body for temperature, pH, other conditions.
Hypothalamussignals pituitary gland if conditions need to be corrected, if there is an emergency to respond to, or other conditions.
Pituitary GlandA marble-sized gland at the base of the brain
Pituitary GlandControlled by the hypothalamus or other neural mechanisms and therefore the middle man.
Pineal GlandSecretes melatonin that targets the brain; involved in regulating daily sleep-wake cycle.
Thyroid GlandIncreases metabolic rate.
Thyroid GlandRegulate growth and development.
Hypothyroidismundersecretion of the thyroid hormone.
(1) Triiodothyronine T3 & (2) Thyroxine T4Two nonsteroid hormones
Parathyroid GlandsEmbedded in posterior surface of the thyroid gland
ThymosinsHormones of Thymus Gland
T lymphocytesTarget of Thymus Gland
Thymus Gland Promote production and maturation of T lymphocytes
Adrenal GlandsAlmond-shaped, located at the tops of the kidneys.
(1) Adrenal Medeulla & (2) Adrenal Cortex2 hormones of Adrenal Glands
(1) Epinephrine & (2) Nonepinephrine2 Adrenal Medulla
Adrenalineproduced in the centre (medulla) of the adrenal glands and in some neurons of the central nervous system.
Adrenaline is to prepare the body for the ‘fight or flight’ response in times of stress, i.e. for vigorous and/or sudden action. Key actions of adrenaline include increasing the heart rate, increasing
(1) Boost of oxygen to brain & muscle (2) Suppression of digestionEffects of Adrenaline
(1) Production of more sweat, (2) Dilation of lungs, (3) Increased pupil size, (4) Heart rate increaseEffects of Noradrenaline
Klinefelter syndromeLow level of testosterone
TestosteroneHormone of testes
Estrogen & ProgesteroneHormone of ovaries
KidneysProduce calcitriol and erythropoietin
Kidneys Produces enzyme renin

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