Endocrine system

zunair's version from 2018-07-10 01:20

Section 1

Question Answer
Endocrine systemcomposed of ductless glands that synthesize and secrete hormones
Where are hormones released and transported fromThe blood
Target cellHave the specific receptors for a hormone and bind to them
LigandsBoth in endocrine and nervous system release ligands that are chemical messengers and cellular receptors on particular target cells
endocrine system featuresTransmits hormones through blood, targets any cells w correct receptors and effects can be long lasting
Endocrine system functionsregulate dev, growth, metabolism, control digestive processes/reproductive activities, maintaining homeostasis of blood composition/volume
Nervous stimulationggland cell releases hormone when a neuron stimulates it
hormonal stimulationGland cell releases its hormone when some other hormone binds to it
humoral stimulationgland cell releases its hormone when there is a certain change in levels of a nutrient or ion in the blood

Section 2

Question Answer
Glandsend hormones (chemical messengers) through blood to other organs/tissues in body to control function of that organ
What are the different ways hormones are transported in the bloodLipid soluble hormones use carrier molecules, water soluble travel freely
GlucagonWater soluble hormone, released from pancreas when blood sugar is low
oxytocinwater soluble hormone, released from posterior pituitary during labor and delivery
synergistic interactionone hormone reinforces activity of another hormone
permissive interactionone hormone requires activity of another hormone
antagonistic interactionone hormone opposes activity of another hormone

Section 3

Question Answer
Pituitary gland controls whatthyroid, adrenal, liver, testes and ovaries
Pituitary positioned wherebase of brain (infundibulum), looks like a pea and right below the hypothalamus
posterior pituitary functionstorage and release site for oxytocin (OT) and Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hypothalamus functionstimulates anterior pituitary to release its hormones, secretes regulatory hormones that travel from the blood to pituitary
Anterior pituitary hormones consist of whatThyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Prolactin (PL), Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH), Growth hormone (GH)
TSH FunctionCause release of thyroid hormone (TH) from thyroid gland
Prolactin (PL) Functioncauses milk production, mammary gland and growth in females
ACTH functioncause release of corticosteroids by adrenal cortex
FSH/LH functionin female regulate ovarian development and secretion of estrogen/progesterone. Male regulate sperm development and secretion of testosterone

Section 4

Question Answer
Growth hormone functionstimulation of linear growth of epiphyseal plate, hypertrophy of muscle, release of nutrients from storage into blood
Growth hormone targets whathepatocytes that release insulin like growth factors (IGFs)
growth hormone deficiencyalso called pituitary dwarfism, inadequate growth hormone production, low blood sugar, short stature
pituitary gigantismtoo much growth hormone, excessive growth and increased blood sugar, enormous internal organs
Thyroid gland locationSits inferior of thyroid cartilage of larynx
thyroid hormone functionfosters ATP production, TH increases respiration rate, heart rate and force of contraction
hyperthyroidismexcessive production of Thyroid hormone, increased metabolic rate, weight loss, hyperactivity, heat intolerance
adrenal glands locationon superior surface of kidney

Section 5

Question Answer
Adrenal regions are whatMedulla and cortex
Adrenal medulla functionrelease epinephrine and noepinephrine with sympathetic stimulation
adrenal cortex functionsynthesize corticosteroids
mineralcorticoids hormoneregulate electrolyte level
glucocorticoids hormoneregulate blood sugar
gonadocorticoid hormonesex hormone
cortisol hormoneincreases nutrient levels in blood
pancreas positionsits behind stomach between duodenum and spleen

Section 6

Question Answer
Pancreas islets of langerhann contain what cellsalpha and beta cells
alpha cells secrete whatglucagon
Beta cells secrete whatInsulin
pancreatic hormones do whatmaintain blood glucose
insulin does whatLower blood glucose levels
Glucagon does whatincrease blood glucose levels
pineal gland locationadjacent to pituitary gland, under thalamus
pineal gland secretes whatmelatonin
Melatonin functioncause drowsiness and effects mood

section 7

Question Answer
Parathyroid gland locationsmall structures on back of thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland secretes what and what is its function PTH which functions in increasing blood calcium
thymus secretes what and what is its functionthymic hormones and maturation site for T cells
thymus locationlocated anterior to top of heart
ovaries secretes whatOestrogen and progesterone
oestrogen functionstops FSH production to ensure only one egg matures in a cycle
progesterone functionthickening the lining of the uterus
testes produce what hormone and what is its functionTestosterone and development of testes and prostate

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