Endocrine System

zoeleow5's version from 2015-09-16 12:58

Section 1

Question Answer
TyrosineDerived from meat, dairy and fish.
TryptophanDerived from turkey, chocolate, oats, bananas, dried dates, milk, cottage cheese and peanuts.
Peptide hormonesConsists of short chains of amino acids
Protein hormonesAre longer polypeptides.

Section 2

Question Answer
InfundibulumWhere pituitary attaches to brain
Anterior pituitarySecretes 7 different hormones
Posterior pituitaryReleases 2 hormones
Hypophyseal Portal SystemSpecialised capillary system to allow communication between hypothalamus and pituitary.

Section 3

Question Answer
ADHTargets kidneys, sweat glands, circulatory system; Effects Water balance.
OTTargets female reproductive system; Triggers uterine contractions during childbirth.

Section 4

Question Answer
Alpha cellProduces glucagon hormone, which is stimulated when blood glucose levels are low and has a role in blood glucose regulation; makes up 20%
Beta cellProduces insulin, which is stimulated when blood glucose levels increase; makes up 75%
Delta cellSecretes peptide hormone somatostatin, which inhibits the release of both glucagon and insulin; makes up 4%
PP cellSecretes pancreatic polypeptide hormone, which regulates appetite and digestion, and pancreatic exocrine and endocrine secretions; makes up 1%
Adrenal medullaIncreases cardiac activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels by releasing lipids from adipose tissue.
Zona GlomerulosaRegulates concentration of Na+ and K+ in urine, sweat and saliva, which in turn increases BV and BP
Zona FasciculataPromotes catabolism of glycogen to glucose and glycogen formation in liver; amino acid and lipid metabolism; reduces inflammation in allergic reactions.

Section 5

Question Answer
T3 (Triiodothyronine)Responsible for thyroid hormone actions; Carried in blood by transport proteins.
T4 (Thyroxine)Convert iodine from foods into thyroid hormones.
T3 & T4Elevates oxygen and energy consumption; Body temp. rises in children; Increases HR and BP; Increases sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation; Maintains sensitivity of respiratory enters to changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide; RBC formation; Stimulates other endocrine tissues
CalcitoninAccelerates turnover of bone minerals.
Chief cellsProduces parathyroid hormone; released in response to low Ca2+ concentration; Stimulates bone to release Ca2+; Inhibits bone uptake of Ca2+; Increases Ca2+ reabsorption in kidneys; Increases gastrointestinal tract reabsorption of Ca2+ via calcitriol.