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Endocrine System

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kimdangalo's version from 2011-11-16 06:34

Anterior Pituitary

Question Answer
What are all the hormones for the anterior pituitary?Thyroid Hormone, Cortisol, Insuline-LIke Growth Factor, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, Prolactin, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, ACTH, GH, FSH, LH, TRH, CRH, GHRH, Somatostatin, GnRH
When temperature decrease, the hypothalamic hormone released isTRH = Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
When temperature decrease, the anterior pituitary hormone released isTSH = Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
When temperature decrease, the target organ isThyroid Gland
When temperature decrease, the hormone released by the target organ isThyroid Hormone (duh)
When temperature decrease, The target cells areBody Cells
When temperature decrease, The Result isAn increase in metabolic rate, increase in O2 consumption, increase in ATP production and use, Increase in Heat
When the trigger is STRESS, the hypothalamic hormone released isCRH = Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
When the trigger is STRESS, the anterior pituitary hormone released isACTH = Adrenal CorticoTropic Hormone
When the trigger is STRESS, the target organ is the adrenal cortex
When the trigger is STRESS, the hormone released from the target organ iscortisol
When the trigger is STRESS, the target cells arebody cells
When the trigger is STRESS, the result isCortisol will inhibit insulin and thus the creation of GLUT-4, this will INCREASE blood glucose
When the trigger is the NEED FOR GROWTH, the hypothalamic hormone released isGHRH = growth hormone releasing hormone.
When the trigger is the NEED FOR GROWTH, The anterior pituitary hormone released is GH = growth hormone
When the trigger is the NEED FOR GROWTH, The target organ is the Liver
When the trigger is the NEED FOR GROWTH, The hormone released by the target organ isIGF = Liver releases Insulin-LIKE growth factor
When the trigger is the NEED FOR GROWTH, the target cells is body cells
What are the two results that comes from the need for growth trigger?1) Increase blood glucose 2) Growth
When the trigger is NO NEED for growth, what is the hypothalamic hormone released?Somatostatin (soma = body, statin = stop)
When the trigger is NO NEED for growth, What happens to the anterior pituitary? what does it release?No GH will be released because of somatostatin.
What happens after pregnancy and there needs to be milk? What hormone is released by the hypothalamus?PRH = Prolactin Releasing Hormone
What happens after pregnancy, What does this cause the anterior pituitary to release?Prolactin, which is for sexual gratification and arousal.
What happens after pregnancy, What are the target organs?Mammary glands
What happens after pregnancy, What results?Milk Production
What happens when you don't need milk to be produced anymore? What will the hypothalamus secrete?PIH = Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone
What happens when you don't need milk to be produced anymore? What results?No prolactin will be relased from the anterior pituitary
What happens for reproduction? The hypothalamus releases what?GnRH = Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
What happens for reproduction? This causes the anterior pitutiary to release what?Both FSH = Folicle Stimulating Hormone & LH = Leutinizing Hormone
What happens for reproduction? What are the target organs?Overies and Testes
What happens to the ovaries if the anterior pituitary releases FSH?The hormone that will be released to the ovaries is Estrogen and OOgenesis will occur
What happens to the ovaries if the anterier pitutiary releases LH?The hormone Progesterone will be released and Ovulation will happen (egg release)
What happens to the testes if the anterior pituitary releases FSH?NO hormone but Spermatogenesis will happen (sperm production)
What happens to the testes if the anterior pituitary releases LH?HORMONE Testosterone will be released but NO event will happen.
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Posterior Pituitary

Question Answer
What are all the hormones that are released from the posterior pituitary?ADH, Oxytocin
Where are ADH and Oxytocin made?In the nuclei of the hypothalamus
Where is ADH and Oxytocin transported to after it's made in the hypothalamus?To the axon terminal in the Posterior Pituitary
What biological triggers causes the posterior pituitary to release ADH?Dehydration as well as Decreased Blood Pressure
What is ADH's target organ?Kidneys
What is the result after ADH targets the Kidneys?Body water is conserved. There is an increase in blood volume, increase in blood pressure, DECREASE in urine volume (output)
When ADH decreases what will happen to the urine volume?There will be an INCREASE in Urine volume (Polyuria), Increase in Thirst (Polydypsia).
What does Polyuria and Polydypsia mean?Urine volume (Polyuria), Increase in Thirst (Polydypsia).
What is the diagnosis when you have polyuria, polydypsia?You might have Diabetes Insipidus
What TWO biological triggers will make the posterior pituitary release oxytocin?The initiation of Childbirth AND Breastfeeding.
What target organ is for the initiation of childbirth?Uterus
What is the result of the release of oxytocin towards the uterus during childbirth?Uterine contraction
What target organ is for breastfeeding?mammary glands
What results when mammary glands receive oxytocin?Milk Release
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Endocrine Glands/Tissue That Are Made of Nervous Tissue

Question Answer
What are the endocrine glands/tissue that are made of nervous tissue?Pineal Gland, Adrenal Gland, Posterior Pituitary, and Hypothalamus
If the structure is the pineal gland, what does it secrete and to where? and what does it do?It secretes Melatonin to Neural Tissues which makes you sleepy
What about the Adrenal Medulla regarding Endocrine Glands/Tissue?It will secrete epinephrine and Norepinephrine targeting body cells which will raise blood glucose
Where will the posterior pituitary release ADH regarding the endocrine glands/tissues and what will result to blood volume?It will release ADH to the kidneys which will Increase Blood Volume
Where will the posterior pituitary release oxytocin regarding the endocrine glands/tissues and what will it increase?It will release oxytocin which will go to the Uterus and increase uterine contraction
Where will the posterior pituitary release oxytocin regarding the endocrine glands/tissues and what will it make "release"?It will release oxytocin which will go to the mammary glands and create milk release
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Hormones that affect BLOOD SUGAR

Question Answer
What are all the hormones that affect blood sugar?Insulin, Glucagon, Epinephrine & Norepinephrine, Cortisol, IGF
If it's after meals and there is HIGH blood glucose, what is the organ involved?Pancreas
What does the Islet of Langerhans BETA CELLS do?Beta Cells will release insulin to the body cells and this will lower blood glucose.
What is the process of lowering blood glucose by Beta Cells?Glycogenesis
In BETWEEN meals when the blood glucose is lowered, what happens?Alpha cells will act within the Pancreas and will release GLUCAGON
What happens when ALPHA cells act within the pancreas?Glucagon will increase blood glucose
What is this process called when ALPHA cells act within the pancreas to increase blood glucose?GlycogenoLYSIS and Glucogenesis
When the stress is Sympathetic innervation what is the targeted organ?Adrenal Gland
What portion of the adrenal gland is targeted when there is stress?Adrenal Medulla
What hormones do the Adrenal Medulla release when triggered with stress?Epinephrine and Norepinephrine which will target body cells
What is the result of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine targeting body cells due to stress?Increase blood glucose
What is the process called when there's an increase in blood glucose due to E and NE released from the adrenal medulla?When you increase blood glucose because of E and NE it's called GlycogenoLYSIS
When there is stress what does the adrenal cortex release?Cortisol to body cells and this increases blood glucose
What happens then after the adrenal cortex releases cortisol to body cells?Releasing cortisol will increase blood glucose by inhibiting insulin and thus GLUT-4, which increases glucose for CNS
When there is need for bone and muscle growth which organ is affected?Liver
What hormone is released when there is need for bone and muscle growth?IGF is released by the Liver. Insulin-Like Growth Factor to the body cells.
What does the IGF hormone do after it's released from the liver for bone and muscle growth? What happens to blood glucose and what is the process called?IGF increases blood glucose through Glucogenesis.
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Hormones that Affect BLOOD CALCIUM

Question Answer
What hormones affect blood calcium?Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin
When the blood calcium is LOW, what happens to what organ?The parathyroid Gland will release parathyroid hormone
What is the affect of the parathyroid gland releasing parathyroid hormone on BONE TISSUE?It will break down bone and the calcium from the bone will enter the blood
What is the affect of calcium from the bone entering the blood on digestion?There will be an increased absorption of calcium from the Intestines
What is the affect on Blood Calcium from calcium of the bone entering the blood stream?In general you are increasing blood calcium.
When the blood calcium is HIGH, what happens to what organ?The thyroid Gland will release Calcitonin.
What is the affect of the thyroid gland releasing calcitonin on BONE TISSUE?Calcitonin will BUILD UP BONE and the calcium in the blood will go into building bones.
What is the affect of the buildup of bone and the calcium in the blood going into bone... on blood calcium?It will decrease blood calcium.
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