Endocrine system

icer215's version from 2016-08-25 00:11

Section 1

Question Answer
Endocrine system make hormones = specific control of all target cells of that hormone.
crineto secrete
endocrine glandssecreting hormones into surrounding tissue fluids.
endocrine hormone, no duct, acts long distances


Question Answer
exocrinenon-hormone secretions into ducts.
autocrinelocal chemicals, act short distances on themselves
paracrinelocal chemicals, act short distances on other cells
hormonechemicals that regulate metabolism and function of cells.
HypothalamusReleasing hormones/factors stimulates pituitary to release its hormone.

Section 2

Question Answer
Components of the endocrine systemDirect release of NT/hormones into the circulatory system
HypothalamusCoordinator of the endocrine system. Regulate pituitary gland
Pituitary glandAlso called as hypophysis. Secrets hormones and neurotransmitters for growth, reproduction, and mental development
Thyroid glandLocated in front of neck. Regulate metabolism and energy usage in the body
Parathyroid glandLocated behind the thyroid gland. Manage proper bone development
Adrenal glandReleases adrenaline. Manage energy usage.
Pineal glandConnection between the endocrine system and the nervous system. Releases melatonin and other hormones
Reproductive gland (ovaries and testes)Produces estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone
Effects of the endocrine system on behaviorInvolved in reproductive behaviors, Sleeping patterns (wakefulness), Emotions


Question Answer
GnRH Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone = stimulates pituitary to release FSH and LH.
CRFCorticotropin Releasing Factor.
TRH Thyroid Releasing Hormone.
Dopamineinhibits prolactin release.


Question Answer
GHRHGrowth Hormone Releasing Hormone.
ADHAntidiuretic Hormone = Vasopressin = increase water reabsorption in kidney = conserve water, increase blood pressure.
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during labor, also milk secretion during suckling.
Pituitary makes FLAT PEG, stores ADH and oxytocin.


Question Answer
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone = Stimulate ovary follicles to mature, testis to produce sperm.
LHLuteinizing Hormone = surge triggers ovulation, stimulates testis to produce testosterone.
ACTHAdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone = Stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
TSHThyroid Stimulation Hormone = Stimulate thyroid to release thyroid hormones.
PRLProlactin = Stimulates breast to produce milk.
GHGrowth Hormone = Stimulates growth of muscle, bone, burns fat.

Section 3

Question Answer
Pinealmakes melatonin, which makes you sleepy at night.
Calcitonin (takes calcium into the bones, out of the blood)
Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine(increase heart rate, cardiac output, breathing, metabolic rate, sympathetic activity, endometrium growth)
Thyroid(increase metabolism) below the adam's apple on the neck, near the collar bone.
Parathyroid Glands (calcium into the kidneys and blood, there are 4, each is the size of a grain of rice) they are behind the thyroid anywhere from the jaw to the chest.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)(increases blood and kidney calcium, decreases bone calcium, causes dietary calcium absorption).

Section 4

Question Answer
Thymus stimulates T cells to develop.
Adrenal specifically the medulla (activate the sympathetic nervous system, the left is a crescent shape, the right is a triangle shape) located on top of and behind the kidneys.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine fight or flight response
Mineralocorticoidsaldosterone = increase Na+ and water retention, raises blood pressure.
Glucocorticoidscortisol = stress hormone = increase blood sugar.
Androgens testosterone.
Pancreaslocated across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach, connected to the duodenum by the pancreatic duct, mostly on the left side.


Question Answer
NeuroendocrinologyThe study of the relationship between nervous system and the endocrine system.Endocrine system is little slower than nervous system because it requires hormones to travel throughout the body in the bloodstream.Two systems work closely together to regulate physiological processes in the human body
Glucagonincreases blood sugar (break down glycogen, stimulate gluconeogenesis).
Insulin lower blood sugar (stimulates glucose uptake by cells).
Ovarymake estrogen (and a small amount of testosterone).
Testismake testosterone.
Endocrine diseasesDiabetes, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Gigantism, & Acromegaly
Diabetesno insulin made, or no insulin receptors, glucose can't enter cells, high blood sugar. cell starved of sugar, leading to fatty acid metabolism, which leads to production of ketone bodies, which lead to ketoacidosis (more acidic blood). sugar in urine, leading to more water in urine due to osmosis.

Section 5

Question Answer
HypothyroidismDecreased thyroid hormone. Low metabolism.
Hyperthyroidism Too much thyroid hormone. High metabolism.
Gigantism too much Growth Hormone during growing age = well-proportioned giants.


Question Answer
Acromegalytoo much Growth Hormone later on in life = disproportioned growth of certain areas of the body
Major types of hormonesamino acid based & steroids
steroids cholesterol derivatives = testosterone, estrogen, adrenocortical hormones.
amino acid basedamino acid derivatives = most hormones are this type.

Section 6

Question Answer
Endocrine System: Mechanisms of Hormone Actioncan be water soluble or lipid soluble. Water soluble hormones can not enter the cell and need a receptor; lipid soluble hormones directly activate genes within the cell.
Water soluble hormones bind to a receptor on the cell membrane and a secondary messenger relays the signal inside the cell.
Lipid soluble hormones cross the membrane and activate genes inside the cell.
Steroid pathwaybind to receptors inside the cell inside or outside the nucleus, affecting the amount of mRNA and proteins produced.
cAMP pathway amino acid hormones bind to receptors in the membrane, the G protein is activated, adenylate cyclase is activated, cAMP is made causeing a protein kinase cascade.
Phospholopid pathwayamino acid hormone binds to membrane receptor, a G protein is activated, phospholipase C is activated, membrane phospholipids split into DAG and IP3, DAG triggers a protein kinase cascade, IP3 releases Ca 2+ from ER.


Question Answer
Transport of Hormones (Bloodstream)Hormones can travel long distances in the bloodstream to affect far parts of the body.
Specificity of Hormones (Target Tissue)Hormones only have receptors on cells they affect. The cells can reduce or increase the amount of receptors they have on their membrane.
Integration with Nervous System (Feedback Control)The nervous system can regulate hormones being produced in the hypothalamus that in turn regulate other hormones.
Humoralglands directly respond to chemical levels in the blood (parathyroid respond to low blood calcium).
Neuralglands release hormones when stimulated by nerves (fight or flight response).
Hormonalglands release hormones when stimulated by other hormones (tropic hormones).

Section 7

Question Answer
Nervous SystemResponse to stimulus (pressure, pain, temperature)
sensory/afferent (hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling, positional awareness, sight)
motor/efferent(movement, digestion, cellular functions, hormone regulation)
cognitive abilities (language, awareness, interpretation, pattern recognition, memory recall)
CNSCentral Nervous System = Brain and spinal cord
PNSPeripheral Nervous System = Everything else
sensory/afferent Nerves carrying signal toward CNS.


Question Answer
motor/efferentNerves carry signal toward effector organs.
Somatic Nervous SystemVoluntary = Controls skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary = Effects visceral organs.
Sympathetic division fight or flight response
Parasympathetic divisionRest
Sensorsenses, carries sensory signals from the body to the CNS.
Effectorcauses an effect = carries motor signals from the CNS to the body.