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Endocrine System Pathologies

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bjtmeyer's version from 2016-09-15 22:40

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Question Answer
HypothyroidismDepression and/or anxiety, increased lethargy, fatigue, headache, slowed speech, slowed mental function, impaired short term memory.
Proximal muscle weakness, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger points, myalgia, increased bone density, cold intolerance, paresthesias
Dyspnea, bradycardia, CHF, respiratory muscle weakness, decreased peripheral circulation, angina, increase in cholesterol
Anorexia, constipation, weight gain, decreased absorption of food and glucose
Infertility, irregular menstrual cycle, increased menstrual bleeding
HyperthyroidismTremors, hyperkinesis, nervousness, increased DTRs, emotional lability, insomnia, weakness, atrophy
Chronic periathritis, heat intolerance, flushed skin, hyperpigmentation, increased hair loss
Tachycardia, palpitations, increased respiratory rate, increased blood pressure, arrhythmias
Hypermetabolism, increased appitite, increased peristalsis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dysphagia
Polyuria, infertility, increased first trimester miscarriage, amenorrhea
HypoparathyroidismDecreased bone resorption Hypocalcemia
Elevated serum phosphate levels
Shortened 4th and 5th metacarpals (pseudohypoparathyroidism)
Comprised breathing due to intercostal muscle and diaphragm spasms
Cardiac arrhythmias and potential heart failure
Increased neuromuscular activity that can result in tetany
HyperparathyroidismIncreased bone resorption
Hypercalcemia
Decreased serum phosphate levels
Osteitis fibrosa, subperiosteal resorption, arthritis, bone deformity
Nephrocalcinosis, renal hypertension, and significant renal damage
Gout
Decreased neuromuscular irritability
Type I Diabetes MellitusOnset: usuallly less than 25 years of age
Abrupt onset
5-10% of all cases
Etiology: destruction of islets of Langerhans cells secondary to possible autoimmune or viral causative factor
Insulin production: very little or none
Ketoacidosis can occur
Treatment includes insulin injection, exercise and diet
Type II Diabetes MellitusOnset: usually older than 40 years of age
Gradual onset 90-95% of all cases
Etiology: resistance at insulin receptor sites usually secondary to obesity; ethnic prevalence
Insulin production: variable
Ketocidosis will rarely occur
Treatment includes weight loss, oral insulin, exercise and diet
Acute Renal FailureSudden decline in renal function
Increase in BUN and creatinine
Oliguria, hyperkalemia, sodium rentention
Prerenal etiology is secondary to a decrease in blood flow typically due to shock, hemmorrhage, burn or pulmonary embolism Postrenal etiology is secondary to obstruction distal to the kidney due to neoplasm, kidney stone or prostate hypertrophy
Intrarenal etiology is secondary to primary damageof renal tissue due to toxins, intrarenal ischemia or vascular disorders
Chronic Renal FailureProgressive deterioration in renal function
Diabetes mellitus
Severe hypertension
Glomerulopathies
Obstructive uropathy
Interstitial nephritis
Polycystic kidney disease
HypopituitarismThis condition occurs when there is a decreased or absent hormonal secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. Typical disorders may include short stature (dwarfism), delayed growth and puberty, sexual and reproductive disorders, and diabetes insipidus.
HyperpituitarismThis condition occurs when there is an excessive secretion of one or more hormones under the pituitary gland's control. Disorders and symptoms are dependent on the hormone(s) that are affected. Some disorders include gigantism or acromegly, hirsutism, amenorrhea, infertility, and impotence.
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