Endocrine Questions

mwhyett's version from 2016-05-25 23:46


Question Answer
What does the endocrine system control?1. Growth. 2. Metabolism. 3. Response to external stimuli. 4. Sexual development and reproduction.
What are the characteristics of the endocrine system?1. Releases hormones. 2. Ductless glands. 3. Hormones released straight into blood stream.
What are the characteristics of the exocrine system?1. Secretes substances, 2. Released through ducts. 3. Secreted into GI tract or outside of body.
What is a hormone?A chemical messenger.
What are the three mechanisms of cellular transport?1. Active transport. 2. Passive transport. 3. Bulk transport.
What are three mechanisms of passive transport?1. Diffusion. 2. Osmosis. 3. Facilitated diffusion.
What is the definition of active transport?A movement of ions against a concentration gradient that requires ATP.
What many glands are there?5
What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?Exocytosis is the movement of materials out of the cell, and endocytosis is the movement into the cell.
What is the function of a hormone?To control and coordinate responses within the body.
What are some pathologies of the endocrine system?1. Diabetes. 2. Hyperthyroidism. 3. Thyroid cancer. 4. Goitre.
What is homeostasis?The maintenance of an internal equilibrium despite environmental and physiological changes.
Name the glands of the endocrine system.1. Adrenal. 2. Pituitary. 3. Pineal. 4. Thyroid. 5. Parathyroid.
Excluding glands, name the organs of the endocrine system.1. Hypothalamus. 2. Thymus. 3. Pancreas. 4. Gonads.
What are the two classifications of hormones?1. Water soluble (peptides/amines). 2. Lipid soluble (steroids).
Where is the hypothalamus?In the centre of the brain.
What is the pituitary gland also known as?Hypophysis.
What is the structure of the pituitary gland?Pea sized, and made up of two lobes.
What does the hypothalamus secrete and what is its function?Hypothalamic hormones, to control the secretions of the pituitary gland.
What are some examples of hypothalamic hormones?Dopamine, somatostatin, GnRH, GHRH.
What axis does the hypothalamus form part of?Hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
Where is the pituitary gland situated?In the pituitary fossa beneath the brain.
How does the hypothalamus and pituitary gland work together?The hypothalamus receives the signal, then sends a chemical messenger to the pituitary gland, which then orchestrates a response.
Where is the pineal gland?At the base of the brain.
What is the function of the pineal gland?To produce the hormone melatonin to regulate sleep/wake cycle.
How many parathyroid glands are there ans where are they found?4, embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid.
What does the thyroid gland control?1. Heart rate. 2. Temperature. 3. Metabolism.
Where is the thymus situated?In the superior mediastinum.
Where is the thyroid and parathyroid situated?In the neck near the trachea.
What is different about the thymus?It acts independently to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
What does the thymus secrete?Hormones that are responsible for the maturation of lymphocytes.
Where are the adrenal glands and what two parts do they consist of?Just above the kidneys, and have a medulla and a cortex.
What three hormones do the adrenal glands secrete?Aldosterone, cortisol, and epinephrine.
Where are the ovaries situated?Either side of the uterus.
What hormones do the ovaries secrete?Oestrogen and progesterone, necessary for menstruation and producing female characteristics.
Where are the testes situated?In a pouch that hangs outside of the male body.
What hormone does the testes secrete?Testosterone, which is necessary for the production of sperm and male characteristics.
What exocrine hormones in the GI tract help with digestion?Gastrin (secreted by stomach) which stimulates the production of hydrochloric acid by oresence of food in the stomach. 2. Cholecystokinin (secreted by duodenum) which stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile.
What is negative feedack?
What is positive feedback?
Which is more undesirable, positive or negative feedback?Positive feedback.
What is the menopause?The end of menstruation and fertility.
What are some pathologies of the endocrine system?1. Lesions and cysts. 2. Goitre. 3. Diabetes. 4. Growth hormone disorders. 5. Cushing's syndrome.
What is goitre?The enlargement of the thyroid gland.
What are 3 causes of goitre?1. Iodine deficiency. 2. Graves' disease. 3. Hashimoto's disease.
What is hypoglycaemia?Low blood sugar (below 3mmol/litre)- glucagon is secreted.
What is hyperglycaemia?High blood sugar (above 6mmol/litre)- insulin is secreted.
What causes diabetic foot?Poor bood supply and nerve damage.
What is Cushing's disease?Excessive production and secretion of cortisol.
What is Addison's disease?Not enough production and secretion of cortisol.
What do growth hormones do?1. Promotes increase in bone length. 2. Promotes breakdown of adipose tissue. 3. Increases rates of cell division.