Endocrine Physio

shanachka's version from 2015-11-28 15:41


Question Answer
Peptide hormones: water soluble or lipid solubleWater soluble / hydrophilic
Do peptide hormones require carriers?Yes
Where is the receptor for peptide hormones located?Cell surface
Steroid hormones are derived from _________.Cholesterol
Steroid hormones: water soluble or lipid solubleLipid soluble / lipophilic
Do steroid hormones require carriers?No
Where is the receptor for steroid hormones located?Cytoplasm or nucleus
Which hormones are classified as tyrosine or amine hormones?Catecholamines and thyroid hormones
Are posterior pituitary hormones classified as peptide, steroid, or tyrosine?Peptide
Which hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary?ADH / vasopressin, oxytocin
What is the significance behind ADH and oxytocin being similar in structure?If 1 is present in large amounts, it begins to act like the other
_________ is stimulated by sensory afferents from cervix when baby's head presses on it during contraction.Oxytocin
Oxytocin is a good example of a hormone that participates in _________ feedback.Positive
What stimulates vasopressin release?high ECF osmolarity, low blood volume, low blood pressure
ECF osmolarity is sensed by:Hypothalamic Osmoreceptors
Which hormone will continue being secreted if pituitary stalk is severed?Prolactin
All anterior pituitary hormones except _________ exhibit negative feedback loops.Prolactin
Anterior pituitary hormones are: peptides, steroids, tyrosines.Peptides
A primary problem involves _________.Target tissue
A secondary problem involves _________.Anterior pituitary
A tertiary problem involves _________.Hypothalamus
All hormones except _________ exhibit Circadian Rhythm.Prolactin
When do cortisol levels peak?When you wake up
Which hormones make up the glycoprotein family?TSH, LH, FSH
Which hormones make up the POMC family?ACTH, beta endorphin, gamma lipotropin
_________ stimulates POMC synthesis and cleavage.CRH
Which hormones make up the GH / PRL family?GH, PRL, hPL (hCS)
GH is also called _________.Somatotropin
_________, also known as _________, inhibits GH.GHIH, Somatostatin
GH stimulates linear growth via _________, also known as _________.IGF-1, Somatomedin
GH is known as diabetogenic because it:Increases blood glucose
What would stimulate GH release? Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia.Hypoglycemia
GigantismIncrease in GH secretion before epiphyseal plates close
AcromegalyIncrease in GH secretion in adults. Will result in enlargement of facial features, hands, feet. Increase in blood glucose can eventually lead to type 2 Diabetes.
Thyroid hormones are made from:Tyrosine
How is I transported into the cell?Co transport with Na via Na-I Symporter (NIS)
Which enzyme adds I to thyroglobulin?Peroxidase
Is T3 or T4 produced in larger amounts?T4
Which enzyme converts T4 into T3 and why does this happen?Type 1 5-deiodinase; T3 is more active
Which enzyme converts T4 into reverse/inactive T3 and why does this happen?Type 3 deiodinase; During fasting to conserve energy because T3 increases BMR and rT3 doesn't.
Hypothyroidism due to a secondary problem affecting the anterior pituitary will result in what levels of T4, TSH, TRH?low T4, low TSH, high TRH
Hypothyroidism is associated with _________ BMR and _________ intolerance.Decreased, Cold
Hypothyroidism is associated with weight _________.Gain
PTH is a: peptide, steroid, tyrosine.Peptide
PTH stimulates:Increased renal reabsorption of Ca and excretion of phosphate
PTH induces activation of:Vitamin D
Which hormone has the opposite action of PTH?Calcitonin
Vitamin D is a _________ hormone.Steroid
When does kidney hydroxylation produce inactive form of vitamin D?When levels of Ca are very high
Low levels of Ca will stimulate _________ absorption of Ca by intestine.Increased
Adrenal cortical hormones are _________.Steroid hormones
Which part of the adrenal cortex produces aldosterone?Zona glomerulosa
Which parts of the adrenal cortex produce cortisol and androgens?Zona fasciculata and reticularis
_________ is the rate limiting enzyme of adrenal cortical hormone production.SCC
_________ regulates SCC.ACTH
Why does hypertrophy of the adrenal gland occur when there are high levels of ACTH?ACTH is a trophic hormone
Which adrenal cortical hormone controles the negative feedback loop for ACTH?Cortisol
What happens when there's a deficiency of 21 Hydroxylase?High levels of androgens. Decreased negative feedback to ACTH because cortisol isn't being produced. High levels of CRH and ACTH. Virilization in females.
Aldosterone stimulates:Na reabsorption and K excretion
What effect does cortisol have on blood glucose?Increases blood glucose
Adrenal medullary hormones are:Tyrosine hormones
Which cells of the endocrine pancreas will be stimulated by increased blood glucose?Beta cells
Which glucose transporter allows glucose to enter beta cells?GLUT 2
Which glucose transporter is utilized by adipose and skeletal muscle?GLUT 4
What is the relationship of muscle contraction and glucose uptake?Muscle contraction stimulates insertion of GLUT 4 into membrane and uptake of glucose, regardless if insulin is there or not.

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