Endocrine I

taylormaloney's version from 2016-04-10 00:48

Section 1

Question Answer
What two body systems control the organ systems?Endocrine + Nervous System
What three endocrine organs are found in the skull?Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gl, + Pineal Gl
What three endocrine organs are found in the neck/upper trunk?Thyroid Gl, Parathyroid Gl, + Thymus.
What three endocrine organs are found in the lower trunk?Adrenal Gl, Pancreas, + Kidney.
What are the remaining endocrine organs?Ovary, Uterus, and/or Testes.
How does the endocrine system function? (Generally)Gland cells secrete hormones, travel via bloodstream, targets cells w/ receptors. Doesn't effect other cells.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the endocrine comparable to neurotransmitters?Hormones.
Where do the mediator actions take place in the endocrine system?Far from site of release (usually).
What cells do the endocrine system target?All cells- (compared to neurotransmitters- muscles, glands, neurons).
How long is the onset of action for endocrine system action?Seconds, Hours, or Days.
How long do the reactions last?Seconds to Days- Longer than Nervous System.
What is the difference between Exocrine and Endocrine Glands.Exo- releases to cavities/ducts. Endo- releases to bloodstream.
What is the pathway of Exocrine Gl's?Glands- Products- Body cavities/ Lumen of Organ/ Outer Surface of Body.
What is the pathway of Endocrine Gl's?Glands- Hormones- Blood.

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the two location related categories of hormones?Circulating and Local Hormones
How do circulating hormones function?They travel via blood capillaries to receptor cells elsewhere in the body.
How do local hormones function?They target receptor cells that are close to the site of release.
What are the two functional categories for hormones in relation to solubility?Water Soluble + Lipid Soluble.
How does a water soluble hormone function?Bind to receptor on outer surface of target cell, specific to that hormone, which then creates response without the hormone entering the cell.
Describe the activation of target cell via water soluble hormone.Chemical reaction triggered by receptor activates enzymes within cell. Biochemical activity adjusts to increase or decrease function.
How does a lipid soluble hormone function?Bind to receptor on inside of target cell. Creates hormone-receptor complex.
Describe the activation of target cell via lipid soluble hormone.Hormone-receptor complex travels to nucleus of target cell, then binds to DNA- changing gene's function. Increases/Decreases Function.
List 3 Examples of Water Soluble Hormones.Human Growth Hormone, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Adrenalin.
List 3 Examples of Lipid Soluble Hormones.Testosterone/Estrogen, Cortisone, Alderosterone.

Section 4

Question Answer
What region of endocrine system regulates growth, metabolism, and homeostasis?Hypothalamus.
Where is it located?Just inferior to Thalamus.
What does is synthesize?More than 9 hormones, mostly acting on pituitary gland.
It regulates hormones secreted by what?Anterior Lobe of Pituitary Gl.
It also produces _____ + _______, to be stored in the Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gl.Oxytocin and AntiDiuretic Hormone.
Which lobe of Pituitary Gl is larger?Anterior, Posterior is an extension of Hypothalamus.
Where is the Pituitary Gl located?In the hypophyseal fossa of the Sella Turcica (Sphenoid).
What are the two scientific names for the Ant/Post Pituitary Gl's?Ant- Adrenohypophysis Post- Neurohypophysis.
What is the full list of hormones related to the Ant Pituitary Gl?Human Growth H, Thyroid Stimulating H, Adrenocorticotropic H, Melanocyte-Stimulating H.

Section 5

Question Answer
What two hormones affect the release of Human Growth H?Growth H Releasing H, + Growth H Inhibiting H.
What causes the release of these hormones?Low Blood Sugar (GHRH)- High Blood Sugar (GHIH).
This will cause an increase/decrease in what function?The breakdown of glycogen in the liver- until 'normal'.
What is the overall purpose of Human Growth Hormone?To increase secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factors.
What time of day is the most hGH released?During sleep.
What is the relation of hGH release and a person's age?Decreases with age, specifically after puberty.
Do IGF's increase or decrease amino acid uptake by cells? Whats the result?Increases- causes increase in skeletal muscle and bone growth.
Do IGF's increase or decrease availability of glycogen for ATP Production?Decreases- to increase glucose availability for neurons.
What is a potent stimulus for hGH release?Exercise.
Does hGH increase muscle strength, endurance, or power?No.
What is a potential benefit of increased hGH release?Accelerated recovery for soft tissue injury.
What is Gigantism?Overproduction of hGH in childhood.
What is Acromegaly?Overproduction of hGH in adulthood. (Usually from pituitary adenomas)

Section 6

Question Answer
What triggers release of T3 / T4 from Thyroid Gl?Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone.
What are the scientific names of T3 / T4 ?T3- triiodothyronine. T4- thyroxine.
Where is T3 / T4 released from? Follicular Cells.
Which is more powerful?T3, but T4 is effective for a longer period of time.
What is the relationship between T3 / T4 + deiodinase enzymes?T4 can be converted into T3 with the enzymes.
TSH Secretion is activated due to what?Low T3 / T4 Levels + Low Metabolic Rate.
What stops TSH Secretion?Normal T3 / T4 Levels- there is no inhibitory hormones @ Thyroid Gl.
What is the overall function of T3 / T4 ?Increase Basal Metabolic Rate, Stabilize Body Temp, + Increases Protein Synthesis/ Fat Consumption.
What is Grave's disease?Hyperthyroidism. - persistent increase in T3 / T4.
What are the symptoms of hyperthyroidism?Decrease Fat Tissue, Increased eating = Increased Calorie Burning. No change to muscle mass, etc.
What is Goiter?Enlargement of Thyroid Gl- commonly caused by lack of iodine in diet.
What is the relationship between iodine and Thyroid Health?Less Iodine = Less T3 / T4.

Section 7

Question Answer
What hormone is secreted via the Parafollicular Cells of Thyroid?Calcitonin.
What is it's main overall function?Decreases Plasma Calcium Ion Levels.
What causes it's secretion?An increase in Blood Calcium Ion Levels- beyond normal.
What are it's two methods of action?Stimulates calcium deposition in bones (osteoblast), Decreases amount of Calcium filtered into blood from kidneys.
Is Calcitonin release triggered by TSH?No- Only T3/ T4 effected by TSH.
What can Calcitonin be used to treat?Osteoporosis.

Section 8

Question Answer
What is the hormone that works opposite Calcitonin?Parathyroid Hormone.
Where is it released from?The Parathyroid Gland.
It is stimulated by what?A drop in Calcium Ions in the blood.
What are the main functions caused by it's release?Osteoclasts break down bone tissue to release calcium, and increases amount of Calcium filtered into blood via kidneys.
Define Hypoparathyroidism.PTH Deficiency- resulting in hypocalcemia.
What is the name of another hormone released via the Parathyroid Gl?Adrenocorticotropic H- ACTH.
What is it's general function?Stimulates release of cortisol and other glucocorticoids.
Where are they released from?The Adrenal Cortex.

Section 9

Question Answer
What are the three varieties of hormones released from the Adrenal Cortex?Adrenal Androgens, Glucocorticoids, Mineralcorticoids.
What is the major AA?DHEA- precursor for testosterone/estrogen.
What are it's three main effects?Pre-pubertal growth in males/females, stimulate growth of pubic/axillary hair, imperative for women post-menopause.
What form of it is often used recreationally?Anabolic Steroids = DHEA. Increases lean muscle mass/strength.
What is the major MC?Aldosterone-
What are it's stimuli?Dehydration/ Sodium Deficiency/ Hemmorage. ( Decrease- BV / BP )
What are it's effects?Increases re-absorption of Sodium- ( w/ water/chloride)- Increases BV + BP + Sodium Levels.

Section 10

Question Answer
What type of cells are found within the Renal Medulla?Chromaffin Cells
What do they secrete?Epinehprine and Norepinephrine.
What is the percentage of each that are released?Epin ( Adrenaline) - 80 %. Norepin (Noradrenaline)- 20%
What does E act on ?Beta Androgenic Receptors.
What are it's functions?Increase in HR + Oxygen Uptake. VadoDILATION.
What does N act on?Alpha Androgenic Receptors.
What are it's functions?Increease in BP, VasoCONSTRICTION.
What is the generic term regarding these two hormones?Fight or Flight.

Section 11

Question Answer
What artificial hormone can be introduced at the Adrenal Gl?Salbutamol - ( Ventolin )
What is it's purpose?Beta2-adrenergenic-receptor agonist.
What does it do?Promotes Beta Reaction- widens airways to lungs.
What is it used to treat?Asthma/ Breathing difficulties.

Section 12

Question Answer
What is MSH?Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone.
What does it do?Promotes secretion of melanin granules in melanocytes.
What does this cause?Darkened skin due to increased pigment.
Does it have a known function for humans?No.

Section 13

Question Answer
What two hormones are stored in the Posterior Pituitary Gl?Oxytocin + Antidiuretic Hormone.
What does O function as?Acts on uterine contractions for females via postitive feedback. Also promotes Milk ejection after birth.
What activates release of ADH? What ceases it's release?High Blood Osmotic Pressure. - Low Osmotic Pressure.
What is it's overall function?Reduced Sweating, Signals kidneys to retain more water, Constricts Arteries.
What do these functions accomplish overall?Increased Blood Pressure.
What is the relation between ADH and Alcohol?Alcohol decreases ADH secretion, causing increase in urination.

Section 14

Question Answer
What are the four types of cells found in Pancreatic Islet?Alpha, Beta, Delta, and F Cells.
What does A cell secrete?Insulin.
What does B Cell secrete? Glucagon.
What does D Cell secrete?Somatostatin.
What does F Cell secrete?Pancreatic Polypeptide.
What activates secretion of A Cells?Hypoglycemia- causes Blood Sugar level to increase.
What activates secretion of B Cells?Hyperglycemia- causes Blood Sugar to decrease.
What is Type 1 Diabetes?Insulin Dependent- no/too little insulin produced in body.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?Insulin Resistant- lack of insulin receptors in cells.
Does a Type 2 Diabetic's body produce insulin?Yes- but it cannot be used due to lack of receptors.

Section 15

Question Answer
What are the two hormones secreted via Kidneys?Calcitriol + Erythropoietin.
What is C ?Active Vitamin D.
What is the function of C?Increases Calcium Ion absorption from GI Tract.
What activates the secretion of E?High altitudes, and/or low circulating/tissue O2 Levels.
What is the function of E?Increases Red Blood Cell formation, thus increasing O2 levels.

Section 16