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Endocrine Drugs - Mechanisms

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sagudaxu's version from 2018-01-23 00:41

Section

Question Answer
Continuous insulin secretionLong/intermediate acting insulin
Insulin secretion in response to a mealRapid/short acting insulin
Promotes uptake/storage of glucose; translocation/activation of GLUT4 receptors, ↓ gluconeogenesis/glycogenolysis/glucose output, ↑ glycogen synthesisinsulin
Binds to sulfonyurea receptor on B-cell → closure of K+ channels, opening of Ca2+ channels, ↑ intracellular Ca2+ and insulin secretionSulfonyureas
MOA similar to sulfonyureas but bind to another site with faster onset and shorter duration of actionMeglitidines
Inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, ↑ peripheral glucose uptake, ↓ insulin resistance, ↓ intestinal absorption of glucoseBiguanides
Act as agonists at PPAR-G receptors = ↑glucose uptake in fat, muscle, liver. ↑ insulin sensitivity, ↓ resistance. ↓ hepatic glucose productionThiazolidinediones
↓ rate of glucose absorption, delay digestion of starch, disaccharides. Inhibit a-glucosidase. Prevents conversion of starch to glucoseGlucosidase inhibitors
Inhibits bile acid reabsorption = ↓ gluconeogenesis, ↓ hepatic glucose productionBile acid sequestrants
Improve glucose metabolism w/no effect on insulin concentration. ↓ insulin resistanceDopamine receptor agonists
Inhibit SGLT-2 receptors from reabsorbing glucose in the kidney = ↑ excretion of glucoseSGLT-2 inhibitors
Inhibit DDP-4 from breaking down GLP-1 and GIP = glucose dependent ↑ of insulin/glucagon secretion, ↑ uptake of glucose by tissues, ↓ appetiteDDP-4 inhibitors
↑ glucose-dependent insulin secretion/satiety, ↓ glucagon secretion/gastric emptyingGLP-1 agonists
Converts to T3synthetic T4
↑ norepi/dopamine release = stimulates CNS, suppresses appetiteAnorexiants
Inhibit gastric/pancreatic lipase, ↓ fat absorptionLipase inhibitor
Activates serotonin at 2C receptor in hypothalamus = ↑ satiety, ↓ food consumptionSerotonin receptor 2C agonist
Inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resportionBisphosphonates
Stimulate osteoblast-mediated bone formationParathyroid hormone
Both activates and blocks estrogenic pathways, mimicking the effects of estrogen on bone = ↓ resorption, ↑ BMDestrogen agonist/antagonists
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