EMT The Human Body

laxikalo's version from 2015-09-17 02:49


Question Answer
The functions of the body are called itspathology
The structure of the body is referred to as itsanatomy

Anatomical Positions Pt 1

Question Answer
The position which the body stands facing you with palms outward feet forwardAnatomical position
The front part of the body Anterior
The back portion of the bodyPosterior
Line drawn down the middle of the body from the forehead to the floor between the feet.Midline
Line drawn vertically through the middle portion of the clavicle and parallel to the midlineMidclavicular Line
Part of the body near the head portionSuperior
Part of the body closer to the feetInferior
Parts of the body that lie farther from the midline Lateral
The topographic term used to describe the location of body parts that are closer to the midline or center of the body isMedial
The topographic term used to describe the part of the body that is nearer to the feet isinferior
Structures that are closer to the trunk are consideredProximal
Structures that are away from the trunk are consideredDistal
The nose, chin, umbilicus (navel), and spine are examples of ___________ anatomic structures.midline
A 5-year-old boy has fallen and has a severe deformity of the forearm near the wrist. He has possibly sustained a fracture of the (A) proximal forearm (B) superior forearm (C) dorsal forearm (D) distal forearm(D) distal forearm
A fracture of the humerus just above the elbow would be described as adistal humeras fracture
In relation to the wrist, the elbow isproximal
In relation to the chest, the back isposterior

Anatomical Positions Pt 2

Question Answer
Injury to the skin closes to the epidermis is consideredSuperficial
Injury further into the skin towards the dermis are consideredDeep
Belly side of the body is consideredVentral
The Spine side of the body is considered Dorsal
The bending of a joint Flexion
the straightening of a joint Extension
Motion towards the midline adduction
Motion away from the midline Abduction
When describing two Body parts that appears pn both sides of the midline they are bilateral
Structures that only appear on one side of the body unilateraly

Anatomical Positions Pt 3

Question Answer
Body facing face down Prone postion
Body facing face up Supine position
Position where the head is elevated for better breathing Fowlers Position
A patient in a semireclined position with the head elevated to facilitate breathing is in the ___________ positionFowler's
Position where the legs are higher than the head Trendelenburgs position
Trendelenburg’s position is MOST accurately defined as asupine position with the legs elevated 6" to 12" higher than the head
The axial skeleton is composed of theskull, face, thorax, and vertebral column

Head and Spine

Question Answer
Which of the following is NOT a facial bone? (A) mastoid (B) maxilla (C) mandible (D) zygoma(A) mastoid
The ___________ is made up of the maxilla and zygoma, as well as the frontal bone of the craniumOrbit
Twelve pairs of ribs attach to what section of the spinal column?Thoracic
The ___________ portion of the spinal column is joined to the iliac bones of the pelvis.sacrum
The most distal four spinal vertebrae, which are fused together, form thecoccyx
On each side of the cranium the lateral portions are the temples or called the Temporal regions
The neck is supported by the _____Cervical Spine
The atlas is thefirst cervical vertebrae, which articulates the spine
There are how many vertebres in the cervical spine7
What is the # order of the spine for sections 7, 12, 5, 5, 4
How many vertebre make up the spine?33
List the areas of the spine in orderCervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, coccyx
Vertebre are connected by Ligaments
The ____________ is a prominent bony mass that is located at the base of the skull and posterior to the ear.Mastoid Process

The Brain

Question Answer
The brain connects to the spinal cord through a large opening at the base of the skull called theforamen magnum
The most posterior part of the cranium is called the Occiput
How does the medulla oblongata regulate breathing?The medulla is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm.
The largest portion of the brain, which is commonly referred to as the “gray matter,” is called thecerebrum
The part of the brain that controls the left side of the body is theright side cerebrum
Trauma to the __________ lobe of the brain would likely result in visual disturbances.occipital
All necessary life functions are coordinated in what part of the brain?brain stem
the three parts of the brain are the Cerebrum, Brain Stem, Cerebellum


Question Answer
The Thorax is known as the Chest cavity
The most superior portion of the sternum is called themanubrium
The inferior cartilaginous tip of the sternum is called theXiphoid process
The large, flat, triangular bone that overlies the posterior thoracic wall is called thescapula
The Thoracic area of the spine has how many vertebrae 12
The inferior boundary of the thorax is the Diaphragm
The ____ is the muscular dome that forms the inferior boundary of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen.Diaphragm

Thorax Pt 2

Question Answer
The Dimensions of the Thorax are defined by the Thoracic cage
the 11th and 12th ribs are called Floating ribs
The Diaphragm explained in movement Expands and moves downwards when a breath is taken
Within the Thoracic Cage the largest organs are? The heart and lungs
the top portion of the sternum is called The jugular notch

Upper Extremetis

Question Answer
The upper extremety extends from the ____ to the ____ Shoulder Griddle to the fingertips
The bones of the forearm are called theradius and ulna
The supporting bone of the arm is thehumerus
The carpal bones form thewrist
the shoulder griddle contains three bones The Clavicle, Scapula and humerus
Of the Unla and Radius the _____ is the bone that rotates making the hand move radius
Which is the top bone, radius or ulnaRadius
The _____ connect to the metacarpals before making the finger joints Phalanges
The shoulder is considered a ____ _____ Ball and socket joint
Fingers, elbows and knees are considered a ____ ____ Hinge joint
The bones that comprise the fingers and toes are calledphalanges

The Abdomen


Question Answer
Which organ lies in the lateral and posterior portion of the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdomen?spleen
Which of the following organs or structures lies within the retroperitoneal space?kidneys
The kidneys and pancreas are called retroperitoneal organs because they: are located behind the abdominal cavity.
Question Answer
The __________ fills the entire anteroposterior depth of the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomenliver
The most second largest cavity of the body is the ?The Abdomen
What major organs are in the upper right quadrant The liver, gallbladder, and portion of colon
What major organs are in the upper left quadrant? Stomach, spleen, portion of colon
This organ in the upper left Q is frequently injured when ribs are fractured The Spleen
What organs are in the lower right Q Large Intestine, Small intestine and appendix
The ______ lies posterial in the abdominal cavity behind the other organs in the two upper Q's Pancreas
What side of the heart is the inferior vena cavaRight
What side of the heart is the Aortaleft
Relative to the kidneys, the liver isunilateral


Question Answer
The pelvis consists of 3 bones what are they? The sacrum, and two pelvic bones
The femoral artery can be palpated as it enters the ______ from the pelvic region Thigh
What is the name to the major nerve to the lower extremities Sciatic Nerve entering from pelvic region
Each pelvic bone is formed by the fusion of theilium, ischium, and pubis
The femoral head forms a ball-and-socket joint with theacetabulum
The bony prominence on the lateral/superior aspect of the thigh is called thegreater trochanter
The Illiac crest is the top region of the pelvic bone ridge line
The Illium us the Main portion of the pelvic bones

Lower Extremeties

Question Answer
What are the three main parts of the lower extremities thigh, leg, foot
The hip bone is also knows as the _____Greater trochanter
when doing assessments always compare both sides of the Hip Bone the Greater trochanter
Another name for thigh bone Femur
The ______ is the longest and strongest gone of the body Femur
What is considered the largest "joint" in the body the knee
what bone is behind the kneepatella
the leg is composed of two major bonesThe fibula and Tibia
The Fibia lies on the _______ side Where as the Tibula lies on the ____ side Anterior posterior
The _____ is the large bone you feel down the leg Fibia
Anterior to the knee is a specialized bone called thepatella
The distal aspect of the tibia forms themedial malleolus

Skeletal System

Question Answer
Which of the following structures does NOT contain smooth muscleskeletal system
How many bones are in the human body206

Muscular System

Question Answer
The heart muscle is called the...? (A) Myocardium (B) Endocardium (C) Epicardium (D) Pericardium(A) Myocardium
Which of the following statements regarding smooth muscles is correct? (A) A smooth muscle is under control of the voluntary nervous system (B) The biceps and quadriceps are examples of smooth muscles (C) A person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle (D) Smooth muscle is found exclusively within blood vessels.(C) A person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle.
The diaphragm is a unique muscle because itis both a voluntary and involuntary muscle
there are more than ___ muscles in the musculoskeletal system 600
Skeletal muscle does what? attaches to bones of the body
An example of voluntary muscle is _____ Arm movement
Arterial blood bring ____ and _____ to musclesoxygen nutrients
_____ carry away wast product of the muscles Veins
Smooth muscle works on its own, few examples are digestive system, veing arteries bronchi of the lungs
Skeletal muscle is also calledvoluntary muscle
A by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation isheat

Digestive System

Question Answer
Which of the following organs is NOT part of the digestive system? (A) Pancreas (B) Gallbladder (C) Kidney (D) Stomach(C) Kidney
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in theGallbladder
The exocrine gland of the pancreas secretespancreatic juice
The primary organ responsible for absorption of products of digestion is thesmall intestines
Abnormalities in metabolism are MOST likely caused by dysfunction of thepancreas
What is true about the kidneys?The kidneys eliminate toxic waste products from the body and control its balance of water and salt.

Respiratory System


4.Nasal Passages
5.External nares

Upper Airway

Question Answer
What is the function of the upper airway?warms and humidifies inhaled air
The vocal cords are located in thelarynx
The leaf-shaped flap of tissue that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is called theepiglottis
The firm cartilaginous ring that forms the inferior portion of the larynx is called thecricoid cartilage
Relative to the adult’s airway, the child’spharynx is smaller and less deeply curved

Lower Airway

Question Answer
Together, the right and left lungs contain how many lobes5 (the right lung has 3 lobes; the left lung has 2)
As the bronchus divides into smaller bronchioles, the terminal ends of these smaller passages form thealveoli
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract duringinhalation
Negative pressure breathing involvesa drop in pressure within the chest cavity


Question Answer
How does respiration differ from ventilation?Respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the simple movement of air between the lungs and the environment.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar membrane in the lungs through a process calleddiffusion
Breathing occurs as the result of a(n)increase in carbon dioxide, which decreases the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Both areas of the pons are used toaugment respirations during emotional or physical stress

Circulatory System

Question Answer
What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?The arteries contract to increase the blood pressure
The exchange of oxygen and nutrients for waste products of metabolism occurs at the cellular level in thecapillaries
The descending aorta branches into thecommon iliac arteries
Capillary sphincter closure during internal or external bleeding is detrimental becausewaste products are not removed and nutrients are not delivered to the cells.
Worn out blood cells, foreign substances, and bacteria are filtered from the blood by thespleen
What is true about plasma?plasma transports the blood cells and nutrients
Hemoglobin is a molecule that attaches to ___________ and carries oxygen.erythrocytes
White blood cells are also called leukocytes and function byprotecting the body from infection
What is the function of platelets?initial formation of a blood clot
The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles fill with blood is calleddiastole
A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The “130” representsventricular contraction
The average adult has approximately ___________ of blood in his or her body.6L
The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells’ current needs is calledperfusion
___________ pressure is the pressure exerted by a liquid and occurs when blood is moved through the artery at relatively high pressureshydrostatic


Question Answer
The usual resting heart rate for an adult is60 to 100 bpm
During each heartbeat, _______ of blood is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume (SV).70 to 80 mL
Cardiac output (CO) is affected bystroke volume and heart rate
Which of the following are central pulses?femoral and carotid
The artery that can be palpated on the anterior surface of the foot is thedorsalis pedis
Heart beat for a child is70 to 120
heart rate for an toddler is90 to 150
Heart rate for an infant is 100 to 160
The ____ _____ Carries blood fromt he left ventricle to the lungs Pulmonary Artery
______ is the circulation of blood to meet the bodies needsPerfusion
The heart recives blood from the veins in the _____ Side Right
Inferior Vena Cavae in the pelvis is to the ______rear
Descending arota in the pelvis is to the _____ Front