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EMT Head and Spinal Injuries Quiz

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gelliebeen's version from 2012-02-29 06:26

Section 1

Question Answer
The major mass of the brain is called the:Cerebrum
During your initial assessment of a 19-year-old unconscious male who experienced severe head trauma, you note that his respirations are rapid, irregular, and shallow. He has bloody secretions draining from his mouth and nose. You should:suction his oropharynx for up to 15 seconds.
It would be MOST appropriate to perform a focused physical exam on a patient who: a) was restrained during a high-speed motor-vehicle crash b) fainted and fell to the ground from a standing position c) has blood draining from the ears following a head injury d) struck his or her head and is experiencing nausea or vomitingb) fainted and fell to the ground from a standing position
An indicator of an expanding intracranial hematoma or rapid brain swelling is:a rapid deterioration of neurologic signs.
The hormone responsible for the actions of the sympathetic nervous system is:Epinephrine
A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:Retrograde amnesia
When immobilizing a child on a long backboard, you should:place padding under the child's shoulders as needed
A reflex arc occurs when:a sensory nerve detects an irritating stimulus and bypasses the brain by sending a direct message to the motor nerve
Common signs of a skull fracture include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) mastoid process bruising b) ecchymosis around the eyes c) noted deformity to the skull d) superficial scalp lacerationsd) superficial scalp lacerations
When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated:the heart rate decreases and the blood vessels dilate
When caring for a patient with a possible head injury, it is MOST important to monitor the patient's:level of consciousness
A short backboard or vest-style immobilization device is indicated for patients who:are in a sitting position and are clinically stable
The ideal procedure for moving an injured patient from the ground to a backboard is:the four-person log roll
The _________ is the best protected part of the central nervous system and controls the functions of the cardiac and respiratory systems.brain stem
The __________ nervous system consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.peripheral
When immobilizing a trauma patient's spine, the EMT-B manually stabilizing the head should not let go until:the patient has been completely secured to the backboard
When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury, you should use the:jaw-thrust maneuver
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess:eye-opening, verbal response, and motor response
Which of the following statements regarding helmet removal is MOST correct? a) Padding should be placed under the occiput as the helmet is removed b) Helmets should be removed if your transport time will be prolonged c) Helmets should never be removed by EMTs in the prehospital setting d) Football helmets can be effectively and safely removed by one persona) Padding should be placed under the occiput as the helmet is removed
Coordination of body movement is controlled by the:Cerebellum
Which of the following statements regarding cervical collars is MOST correct? a) The patient's head should be forced into a neutral position to apply a cervical collar b) A cervical collar is used in addition to, not instead of, manual immobilization c) Once a cervical collar is applied, you can cease manual head stabilization d) Cervical collars are contraindicated in patients with numbness to the extremitiesb) A cervical collar is used in addition to, not instead of, manual immobilization
When activated, the sympathetic nervous system produces all of the following effects, EXCEPT: a) increase in heart rate b) pupillary constriction c) shunting of blood to vital organs d) bronchiole smooth muscle dilationb) pupillary constriction
The tough, outer meningeal layer is called the:dura mater
After your partner assumes manual in-line stabilization of a patient's head, you should:assess distal neurovascular status in the extremities
The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury is:Cerebral edema
You are assessing a 27-year-old female who was ejected from her car when it struck a utility pole at a high rate of speed. She is unconscious and has slow, irregular breathing. Her blood pressure is 180/90 mm Hg and her pulse rate is 50 beats/min and bounding. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:spinal immobilization, assisted ventilation with oxygen, and rapid transport.
The MOST important treatment for patients with a head injury, regardless of severity, is to:maintain airway patency
A football player experienced a possible spinal injury when he was tackled. He is conscious and alert, but tells you that he is having trouble breathing. His respirations are 28 breaths/min and labored. He is still wearing his helmet. You should:carefully remove the helmet, immobilize his spine, and administer oxygen.
A female patient with a suspected spinal injury is breathing with a marked reduction in tidal volume. The MOST appropriate airway management for her includes:assisting ventilations at an age-appropriate rate.
A young male was assaulted and is found unconscious. Your assessment reveals bruising around his eyes and blood-tinged fluid draining from his nose. You should be MOST suspicious for a/an:skull fracture
After removing a motorcycle helmet, you should:maintain manual stabilization of the head and apply a cervical collar
The meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates in between each meningeal layer, function by:acting as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the:brain and spinal cord
Distraction injuries of the spine are MOST commonly the result of:hanging
Assessing an unconscious trauma patient's airway begins by:manually stabilizing his or her head
You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has experienced a significant head injury if his or her pulse is:slow
When assessing a conscious patient with an MOI that suggests spinal injury, you should:determine if the strength in all extremities is equal
The body's functions that occur without conscious effort are regulated by the __________ nervous system.autonomic
When a patient experiences a severe spinal injury, he or she:may lose sensation below the level of injury
The cervical spine is composed of ___ vertebrae.7
When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT-B at the patient's ________ is in charge of all patient movements.head
What nerves allow sensory and motor impulses to be sent from one nerve directly to another?Connecting
The MOST reliable sign of a head injury is:a decreased level of consciousness
When controlling bleeding from a scalp laceration with a suspected underlying skull fracture, you should:avoid excessive pressure when applying the bandage.
A tight-fitting motorcycle helmet should be left in place unless:it interferes with your assessment of the airway
An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined as:bleeding between the skull and dura mater
During your initial assessment of a semiconscious 30-year-old female with closed head trauma, you note that she has slow, shallow breathing and a slow, bounding pulse. As your partner maintains manual in-line stabilization of her head, you should:instruct him to assist ventilations as you perform a rapid trauma assessment.
If you do not have the appropriate size cervical collar, you should:use rolled towels to immobilize the patient's head.
A 45-year-old male was working on his roof when he fell approximately 12 feet, landing on his feet. He is conscious and alert and complains of an “ache” in his lower back. He is breathing adequately and has stable vital signs. You should:perform a focused physical exam and immobilize his spine.
Bleeding within the brain parenchyma (tissue) is MOST appropriately called a/an:intracerebral hematoma
A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without physical damage to the brain MOST accurately describes a/an:cerebral concussion
When immobilizing a patient on a long backboard, you should:ensure that you secure the torso before securing the head.
What part of the nervous system controls the body's voluntary activities?Somatic
Which of the following head injuries would cause the patient's condition to deteriorate MOST rapidly? a) Epidural hemorrhage b) Cerebral contusion c) Subdural hematoma d) Cerebral concussiona) Epidural hemorrhage
The effectiveness of positive-pressure ventilations when treating a head-injured patient can ONLY be determined by:immediate reassessment following the intervention.
Which of the following sets of vital signs MOST accurately depicts Cushing's triad? a) BP, 90/50; pulse, 120; respirations, 10 b) BP, 80/40; pulse, 30; respirations, 32 c) BP, 190/110; pulse, 55; respirations, 30 d) BP, 200/100; pulse 140; respirations, 28 c) BP, 190/110; pulse, 55; respirations, 30
Common signs and symptoms of a serious head injury include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) combative behavior b) constricted pupils c) decreased sensory function d) CSF leakage from the earsb) constricted pupils
A 30-year-old male experienced closed head trauma when he crashed his motorcycle; he was not wearing a helmet. As you approach the patient, you can hear snoring respirations and can see blood draining from his mouth. You should:manually stabilize his head and perform a jaw-thrust maneuver.
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Inability to remember events after an injury.anterograde (posttraumatic) amnesia
The part of the nervous system that regulates functions that are not controlled by conscious will, such as digestion and sweating.autonomic (involuntary) nervous system
Bruising behind an ear over the mastoid process that may indicate skull fracture.Battle's sign
The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respirations.Brain stem
The brain and spinal cord.Central nervous system (CNS)
One of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "little brain"; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.Cerebellum
Swelling of the brain.Cerebral edema
The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "gray matter"; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.Cerebrum
Injury in which the brain has been injured but the skin has not been broken and there is no obvious bleeding.Closed head injury
A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without actual physical damage to the brain.Concussion
Nerves that connect the sensory and motor nerves in the spinal cord.Connecting nerves
The action of pulling the spine along its length. Distraction
A head position in which the patient's eyes are looking straight ahead and the head and torso are in line.Eyes-forward position
The recommended procedure for moving a patient with a suspected spinal injury from the ground to a long backboard.Four-person log roll
A method of evaluating level of consciousness that uses a scoring system for neurologic responses to specific stimuli.Glasgow coma scale
The cushion that lies between two vertebraeIntervertebral disc
The actions that we do not consciously control.Involuntary activities
Three distinct layers of tissue that surround and protect the brain and the spinal cord within the skull and the spinal canal.Meninges
Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.Motor nerves
Injury to the head often caused by a penetrating object in which there may be bleeding and exposed brain tissue.Open head injury
The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.Peripheral nervous system
Bruising under the eyes that may indicate skull fracture.Raccoon eyes
The inability to remember events leading up to a head injury.Retrograde amnesia
The nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, or other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.Sensory nerves
The part of the nervous system that regulates our voluntary activities, such as walking, talking, and writingSomatic (voluntary) nervous system
Actions that we consciously perform, in which sensory input or conscious thought determines a specific muscular activity.Voluntary activities
Signs of increased intracranial pressure. 1) Hypertension (High BP) 2) Bradycardia (Low pulse) 3) Irregular respirations (High)Cushing's triad
memorize