Rupture of a cerebral artery that may contribute to interruption of cerebral blood flow.
A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow and the formation of clots that can break off and embolize.
A sensation experienced prior to a seizure; serves as a warning sign that a seizure is about to occur.
Obstruction of a cerebral artery caused by a clot that was formed elsewhere in the body and traveled to the brain
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
An interruption of blood flow to the brain that results in the loss of brain function.
A state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.
coup-contrecoup brain injury
A brain injury that occurs when force is applied to the head and energy transmission through brain tissue causes injury on the opposite side of original impact.
The inability to pronounce speech clearly, often due to loss of the nerves or brain cells that control the small muscles in the larynx.
A speech disorder in which a person can understand what is being said but cannot produce the right sounds in order to speak properly.
Convulsions that result from sudden high fevers, particularly in children.
Seizure characterized by severe twitching of all the body's muscles that may last several minutes or more; also known as a grand mal seizure.
Weakness on one side of the body.
One of the two main types of stroke; occurs as a result of bleeding inside the brain.
An abnormally low blood glucose level.
Loss of bowel and bladder control due to a generalized seizure.
Cells in the brain that die as a result of loss of blood flow to the brain.
A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients.
One of the two main types of stroke; occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage (eg, a clot) inside a blood vessel.
Period following a seizure that lasts between 5 and 30 minutes, characterized by labored respirations and some degree of altered mental status.
A speech disorder in which a person has trouble understanding speech but is able to speak clearly.
Generalized, uncoordinated muscular activity associated with loss of consciousness; a convulsion.
A condition in which seizures recur every few minutes, or last more than 30 minutes.
A loss of brain function in certain brain cells that do not get enough oxygen during a CVA. Usually caused by obstruction of the blood vessels in the brain that feed oxygen to those brain cells.
Clotting of the cerebral arteries that may result in the interruption of cerebral blood flow and subsequent stroke.
A type of seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness.
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
A disorder of the brain in which brain cells temporarily stop working because of insufficient oxygen, causing stroke-like symptoms that resolve completely within 24 hours of onset.
A pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of acids in the body.
A metabolic disorder in which the ability to metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) is impaired, usually because of a lack of insulin.
Unconsciousness caused by dehydration, very high blood glucose levels, and acidosis in diabetes.
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
A form of acidosis in uncontrolled diabetes in which certain acids accumulate when insulin is not available.
One of the basic sugars; it is the primary fuel, along with oxygen, for cellular metabolism.
A chemical substance that regulates the activity of body organs and tissues; produced by a gland.
Abnormally high glucose level in the blood.
An abnormally low blood glucose level.
A hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans (an exocrine gland on the pancreas) that enables glucose in the blood to enter the cells of the body; used in synthetic form to treat and control diabetes mellitus.
Unconsciousness or altered mental status in a patient with diabetes, caused by significant hypoglycemia; usually the result of excessive exercise and activity or failure to eat after a routine dose of insulin.
Deep, rapid breathing; usually the result of an accumulation of certain acids when insulin is not available in the body.
Excessive thirst persisting for long periods of time despite reasonable fluid intake; often the result of excessive urination.
Excessive eating; in diabetes, the inability to use glucose properly can cause a sense of hunger.
The passage of an unusually large volume of urine in a given period; in diabetes, this can result from wasting of glucose in the urine.
type I diabetes
The type of diabetic disease that usually starts in childhood and requires insulin for proper treatment and control.
type II diabetes
The type of diabetic disease that usually starts in later life and often can be controlled through diet and oral medications.
The body's exaggerated immune response to an internal or surface agent.
An extreme, possibly life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that may include shock and respiratory failure.
The act of injecting venom.
A substance produced by the body (commonly called adrenaline), and a drug produced by pharmaceutical companies that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction.
Substance released by the immune system in allergic reactions that are responsible for many of the symptoms of anaphylaxis.
Chemical substances that contribute to anaphylaxis; released by the immune system in allergic reactions.
A harsh, high-pitched, crowing inspiratory sound, such as the sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction.
A poison or harmful substance.
Small spots of generalized itching and/or burning that appear as multiple raised areas on the skin; hives.
A raised, swollen, well-defined area on the skin resulting from an insect bite or allergic reaction.
A high-pitched, whistling breath sound, characteristically heard on expiration in patients with asthma or COPD.
A serum that counteracts the effect of venom from an animal or insect.
Common name for decompression sickness.
Slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.
Loss of consciousness caused by a decreased breathing stimulus.
The loss of heat by direct contact (eg, when a body part comes into contact with a colder object).
The loss of body heat caused by air movement (eg, breeze blowing across the body).
The temperature of the central part of the body (eg, the heart, lungs, and vital organs).
A painful condition seen in divers who ascend too quickly, in which gas, especially nitrogen, forms bubbles in blood vessels and other tissues; also called "the bends."
Slowing of the heart rate caused by submersion in cold water.
Death from suffocation by submersion in water.
Certain salts and other chemicals that are dissolved in body fluids and cells.
Conversion of water or another fluid from a liquid to a gas.
Damage to tissues as the result of exposure to cold; frozen body parts.
Painful muscle spasms usually associated with vigorous activity in a hot environment.
A form of heat injury in which the body loses significant amounts of fluid and electrolytes because of heavy sweating; also called heat prostration or heat collapse.
A life-threatening condition of severe hyperthermia caused by exposure to excessive natural or artificial heat, marked by warm, dry skin; severely altered mental status; and often irreversible coma.
A chamber, usually a small room, pressurized to more than atmospheric pressure.
A condition in which core temperature rises to 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C) or more.
A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95 degrees F (35 degrees C) after exposure to a cold environment.
Spasm of the larynx and surrounding structures.
Survival, at least temporarily, after suffocation in water.
The transfer of heat to colder objects in the environment by radiant energy, for example heat gain from a fire.
The loss of body heat as warm air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and cooler air is inhaled.
A triage process in which efforts are focused on those who are in respiratory and cardiac arrest, and different from conventional triage where such patients would be classified as deceased. Used in triaging multiple victims of a lightning strike.
A system that delivers air to the mouth and lungs at various atmospheric pressures, increasing with the depth of the dive; stands for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.
The ability of the skin to resist deformation; tested by gently pinching skin on the forehead or back of the hand.