EMT Chest & Abdominal Injuries Quiz

kelsinicole's version from 2017-03-07 05:15


Question Answer
Accumulation of blood in the abdominal cavity will MOST likely cause:distention
A 33-year-old male was stabbed in the left anterior chest. He is conscious, but is experiencing signs of shock. Further assessment reveals that his jugular veins are distended and his breath sounds are bilaterally equal and clear. This patient is MOST likely experiencing:a pericardial tamponade.
Elevation of the rib cage during inhalation occurs when:the intercostal muscles contract
A football player was struck by another player in the right flank area just below the posterior rib cage. He complains of severe pain and point tenderness to the area. Your assessment reveals that there is a small amount of blood in his underwear. You should be MOST suspicious for:blunt injury to the kidney
It can be difficult to assess the severity of injuries to the genitourinary system following sexual assault because:patients may be hesitant to allow you to examine them
The mesentary is/are:membranous folds that attach the intestines to the walls of the body
You respond to a residence for a 40-year-old female who was assaulted by her husband; the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Upon your arrival, you find the patient lying supine on the floor in the kitchen. She is semiconscious with severely labored breathing. Further assessment reveals a large bruise to the left anterior chest, jugular venous distention, and unilaterally absent breath sounds. As your partner is supporting her ventilations, you should:immediately request ALS support
Your presence is requested by law enforcement to assess a 33-year-old female who was sexually assaulted. The patient is conscious and obviously upset. As you are talking to her, you note an impressive amount of blood on her clothes in the groin area. Her BP is 98/58 mm Hg, pulse is 130 beats/min, and respirations are 24 breaths/min. You should:control any external bleeding, administer oxygen, and transport at once.
When a person is lying supine at the end of exhalation, the diaphragm:may rise as high as the nipple line
A 37-year-old male was pinned between a flatbed truck and a loading dock. On exam, you find bruising to the chest, distended neck veins, bilaterally diminished breath sounds, and bilateral scleral hemorrhaging. You should:aggressively manage his airway
You are transporting a stable patient with a possible pneumothorax. The patient is receiving 100% oxygen and has an oxygen saturation of 95%. During your reassessment, you find that the patient is now confused, hypotensive, and profusely diaphoretic. What is MOST likely causing this patient's deterioration?Compression of the aorta and vena cava
Pneumothorax is MOST accurately defined as:accumulation of air in the pleural space
Pleural fluid is contained between the:Visceral and parietal pleurae
A spontaneous pneumothorax would MOST likely occur as the result of:exertion of a person with a congenital lung defect
Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) collapsed jugular veins b) unilaterally absent breath sounds c) contralateral tracheal deviation d) profound cyanosisa) collapsed jugular veins
A sign of kidney damage following blunt trauma is:Hematuria
Peritonitis, an intense inflammatory reaction of the abdominal cavity, usually occurs when:hollow abdominal organs are damaged and spill their contents.
A rapid, irregular pulse following blunt trauma to the chest is MOST suggestive of a:myocardial contusion
Irritation or damage to the pleural surfaces that causes sharp chest pain during inhalation is called:pleurisy
A flail chest occurs when:a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage.
Hemoptysis is defined as:coughing up blood
Contraction or tensing of the abdominal muscles in an effort to ease pain is called:guarding
While assessing a 21-year-old female who struck a tree head-on with her small passenger car, you note that her airbag deployed. You should:lift the airbag and look for deformity to the steering wheel.
You arrive at the scene of a major motor-vehicle crash. The patient, a 50-year-old female, was removed from her vehicle prior to your arrival. Bystanders who removed her state that she was not wearing a seatbelt. The patient is unconscious, tachycardic, and diaphoretic. Your rapid trauma assessment reveals bilaterally equal breath sounds, a midline trachea, and collapsed jugular veins. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient has experienced a:laceration of the aorta.
Airbags, in conjunction with properly worn seatbelts, are of MOST benefit when a person is involved in a:head-on crash
Early bruising following abdominal trauma is often indicated by:red areas of skin
A 28-year-old male was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during an altercation. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid, irregular pulse. In addition to applying 100% oxygen, you should:prepare for immediate transport
A patient who presents with profound cyanosis following a chest injury:requires prompt oxygenation and ventilation
Bruising to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen following blunt trauma is MOST suggestive of injury to the:liver
While jogging, a 19-year-old male experienced an acute onset of shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. He is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. During your focused exam, you note that he has diminished breath sounds over the left side of the chest. You should:administer oxygen and transport to the hospital
Common signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT: a) tachypnea b) hematemesis c) localized pain d) chest wall ecchymosisb) hematemesis
A 40-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain following blunt trauma. He is diaphoretic, thirsty, and has a weak and rapid pulse. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT: a) promptly transporting to the hospital b) covering him with a warm blanket c) giving him small sips of plain water d) administering supplemental oxygenc) giving him small sips of plain water
Patients with rib fractures will commonly:breathe rapidly and shallowly.
When assessing a patient with a hemothorax, you would MOST likely find:signs and symptoms of shock
When worn properly, a seatbelt should lie:below the anterior superior iliac spines of the pelvis and against the hip joints.
A 54-year-old male experienced an avulsion to his penis when his foreskin got caught in the zipper of his pants. He was able to unzip his pants and remove the foreskin prior to your arrival. Your assessment reveals that he is in severe pain and that the avulsion is bleeding moderately. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:applying direct pressure with a dry, sterile dressing.
Subcutaneous emphysema is an indication that:air is escaping into the chest wall from a damaged lung
You have sealed an open chest wound on a 40-year-old male who was stabbed in the anterior chest. Your reassessment reveals that he is experiencing increasing respiratory distress and tachycardia, and is developing cyanosis. You should:partially remove the dressing.
When a hollow organ is punctured during a penetrating injury to the abdomen:peritonitis may not develop for several hours
Asymmetry of the chest wall occurs when:one side of the chest wall does not expand during inhalation.
The presence of tachycardia following a significant abdominal injury:should be assumed to be a sign of shock.
All of the following are signs of a significant abdominal injury, EXCEPT: a) localized pain b) hypotension c) diffuse bruising d) tachycardiaa) localized pain
Because the depth of an open abdominal wound is often difficult to determine:prompt transport to the hospital is essential.
A 30-year-old male has a large laceration to his right lower abdominal quadrant with a loop of bowel protruding through the wound. When treating this patient, the EMT-B should recall that the:protruding bowel should be kept warm and moist.
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who was kicked in the abdomen by her boyfriend. While en route to the scene, you should ask the dispatcher if:law enforcement is at the scene.
The ________ nerves control the diaphragm.phrenic
During your rapid trauma assessment of a patient with blunt chest trauma, you note paradoxical movement of the left chest wall. As your partner is administering oxygen to the patient, you should:stabilize the chest wall with a bulky dressing.
Following blunt trauma to the chest, an 18-year-old female presents with respiratory distress, reduced tidal volume, and cyanosis. Her blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg and her pulse is 130 beats/min and thready. You should:provide some form of positive-pressure ventilation.
Definitive care for a tension pneumothorax involves:inserting a needle through the rib cage into the pleural space.
An open pneumothorax occurs when:air enters the pleural space from outside the body.
A 66-year-old male presents with dark red rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. He is conscious and alert; however, his skin is cool and clammy and his heart rate is elevated. Further assessment reveals that his blood pressure is 112/60 mm Hg. Which of the following questions would be MOST pertinent to ask him?Have you experienced recent abdominal trauma?

Section 2

Question Answer
An injury to the chest in which the skin is not broken, usually due to blunt trauma.Closed chest injury
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.Dyspnea
A condition in which two or more ribs are fractured in two or more places or in association with a fracture of the sternum so that a segment of chest wall is effectively detached from the rest of the thoracic cage.Flail chest
A one-way valve that allows air to leave the chest cavity but not return; formed by taping three sides of an occlusive dressing to the chest wall, leaving the fourth side open as a valve.Flutter valve
The spitting or coughing up of blood.Hemoptysis
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.Hemothorax
A bruise of the heart muscle.Myocardial contusion
Dressing made of Vaseline gauze, aluminum foil, or plastic that prevents air and liquids from entering or exiting a wound.Occlusive dressing
An injury to the chest in which the chest wall itself is penetrated, by a fractured rib or, more frequently, by an external object such as a bullet or knife.Open chest injury
The motion of the chest wall section that is detached in a flail chest; the motion is exactly the opposite of normal motion during breathing (ie, in during inhalation, out during exhalation).Paradoxical motion
Compression of the heart due to a buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac.Pericardial tamponade
The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart.Pericardium
A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.Pneumothorax
A bruise of the lung.Pulmonary contusion
A pneumothorax that occurs when a weak area on the lung ruptures in the absence of major injury, allowing air to leak into the pleural space.Spontaneous pneumothorax
An open or penetrating chest wall wound through which air passes during inspiration and expiration, creating a sucking soundSucking chest wound
Rapid respirations.Tachypnea
An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity that progressively increases the pressure in the chest with potentially fatal results.Tension pneumothorax
The vomiting of bloodHematemesis
Presense of blood in the urineHematuria
Any injury of the abdomen caused by a nonpenetrating instrument or force, in which the skin remains intact; also called blunt abdominal injury.Closed abdominal injury
The displacement of organs outside of the body.Evisceration
The region of the lower rib cage.Flank
Involuntary muscle contractions (spasm) of the abdominal wall in an effort to protect the inflamed abdomen; a sign of peritonitis.Guarding
Structures through which materials pass, such as the stomach, small intestines, large intestines, ureters, and bladder.Hollow organs
An injury of the abdomen caused by a penetrating or piercing instrument or force, in which the skin is lacerated or perforated and the cavity is opened to the atmosphere; also called penetrating injury.Open abdominal injury
The abdominal cavity.Peritoneal cavity
Inflammation of the peritoneum.Peritonitis
Solid masses of tissue where much of the chemical work of the body takes place (eg, the liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys).Solid organs
A drop in blood pressure caused when the heavy uterus of a supine patient in the third trimester of pregnancy obstructs the vena cava, decreasing blood return to the heart.supine hypotensive syndrome