EMT Chapter 32 - Pediatric Emergencies

ghjyoon's version from 2015-08-06 05:12


Question Answer
1st year of lifeinfancy
how to asess infantobserve, let parent hold them, plan to do anything painful
infancy to 3 yearstoddler
how to asess a todlerallow them to hold object, distract them, begin at feet
3 - 6 years oldpreschooler
how to asess a preschoolertell child what you do, never lie
6 - 12 years oldschool-age
how to asess a school age childgive child choices, begin from head to feet.
12-18 years oldadolescents
how to assess an adolescentresepct privacy, explain procedures in advance
respiratory rate for newborn30-60 b/min, 12-20 b/min for adult
anatomy of airway is different b/clarger, rounder occiput, larger tongue, long, floppy epiglottis, less well-developed rings of cartilage, narrowing funnel-shaped upper airway.
breath sounds are easier to hear b/cthinner chest wall.
young children experiencemuscle fatigue
causes of altered mental status in childrenhypoglycemia, hypoxia, seizure, drug/alcohol
children's bones aremore flexible and weaker
fontanelles close at _ months for anterior and _ months for posterior18 and 6
fracture of femur indicatesblood loss
begin cpr in child immediately if heart rate falls below 80 bpm
if work of breathing, allow child to have position ofcomfort
if there is an airway obstructionencourage child to cough and clear airway. allow patient to breathe, provide supp O2
the acute spasm of bronchioles and with excessive mucus production: asthma
Question Answer
treatment for asthmaassume position of comfort, assist vent if needed, supp O2, administer medication. transport if not improving.
after an upper tract infection or lung injury, infection of the lungs is calledpneumonia
signs and symptoms of pneomonia: rapid breathing, grunting, crackles, hypothermia, and fever. dminished breath sounds. airway breathing, and supp O2.
Question Answer
in cardiac arrest, children becomehypoxic and their hearts slow down and become weaker.
signs of shock in childrentachycardia, poor cap refill, mental status change. check urine, tears, depressed fontanelle, or change in behavior.
treatment for shock in children: airway, vent, control bleeding, O2, position of comfort, keep warm, provide transport.
Question Answer
phase when muscles relax after a seizurepostictal state
treatment for seizuresairway, clear mouth, recovery position, O2, bag mask vent, transport.
treatment for febrile seizuresABCs, cooling with tepid water, provide prompt transport.
risks for meningitishead trauma, VP shunts, brain/spine/back surgery, males, newborns.
children with small cherry red spots or larger purple black rash may haveNeisseria meningitidis
signs of appendicitisfeer, pain of the right lower abdominal quadrant
causes of dehydrationvomitting and diarrhea
young children can compensatedecreasing blood flow to the extremities and directing blo
nausea and vomitting are signs of ahead injury
A syndrome seen in abused infants and children; subject to violent whiplash shaking injuries that may cause coma, seizures, and increased intracranial pressure due to to tearingshaken baby syndrome
Whater the common causes of AMS in the pediatric population?Hypoglycemia, hypoxia, seizures, and drug or alcohol ingestion
Causes of infant death that may be mistaken for SIDS include all of the following, EXCEPThyperglycemia
Because a tracheostomy tube bypasses the nose and mouthsecretions can build up in and around the tube
Death caused by shaken baby syndrome is usually the result ofbleeding in the brain
Which of the following should make you MOST suspicious for child abuse?Bruises in various stages of healing
When a child experiences a blunt injury to the abdomenhe or she can compensate for blood loss better than adults.
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18-month-old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includesAdministrating blow by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother
The primary mechanism that a child's body uses to compensate for decreased perfusion isan increase in heart rate
Capillary refill time is MOST reliable as an indicator of end-organ perfusion in children younger than:6 months and 6 years of age.
The EMT-B should be MOST concerned when a child presents with fever anda rash, indicates menigites
When a child experiences a blunt chest injurythe flexible ribs can be compressed without breaking
Signs and symptoms of meningitis in the infant or child include all of the following: a) headache and fever b) an altered mental status c) a stiff or painful neck
Which of the following is NOT initially seen in children 12 to 18 months old?Understand cause and effect
Which of the following populations is at the greatest risk for meningitis? Children with head trauma
A viral infection that may cause obstruction of the upper airway in a child is calledcroup
Which of the following is NOT an infection that can cause an airway obstruction in pediatric patients?Asthma
All of the following are signs and symptoms of pneumonia in a pediatric patientgrunting, nasal flaring, hypothermia
Which of the following is MORE common in children than in adults following a head injury?Nausea and vomiting
The normal respiratory rate for a newborn should not exceed ____ breaths per minute.60
Signs of an upper airway obstruction in an infant or child include all of the followingstridor, cough
What are common causes for asthma?Upper respiratory infection & exercise. Exposure to cold air, emotional stress, and passive exposure to smoke may trigger it as well.
What are signs of shock in pediatric patients?tachycardia, poor cap refill, mental status change
How does appendicitis usually present?with a fever, pain on palpation of the lower right quadrant, and rebound tenderness.
Common causes of seizures in children include all of the followinginfection, electrolyte imbalance, poisonings
Before assessing the respiratory adequacy of an unconscious infant or child, you mustensure that the airway is patent and clear of obstructions.