EMT Ch15 Respiratory Emergencies Quiz

zacodusu's version from 2017-10-16 04:12


Question Answer
A 60-year-old male presents with acute respiratory distress. He is conscious and alert, has pink and dry skin, and has respirations of 24 breaths/min with adequate depth. Which of the following treatment modalities is MOST appropriate for this patient?
A. oxygen via a nasal cannula, vital signs, and prompt transport to the hospital
B. positive-pressure ventilations and immediate transport to the closest hospital
C. assisted ventilation with a bag-mask device and a head-to-toe exam
D. oxygen via nonrebreathing mask and a focused secondary assessment
The two processes that occur during respiration are:
A. inspiration and expiration.
B. diffusion and oxygenation.
C. oxygenation and ventilation.
D. ventilation and diffusion.
You are dispatched to an apartment complex where a 21-year-old female has apparently overdosed on several narcotic medications. She is semiconscious and has slow, shallow respirations. You should:
A. place her in the recovery position and monitor for vomiting.
B. insert an oropharyngeal airway and perform oral suctioning.
C. apply oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask and transport at once.
D. insert a nasopharyngeal airway and begin assisted ventilation.
An alert patient presents with a regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation and breath sounds that are clear and equal on both sides of the chest. These findings are consistent with:
A. adequate air exchange.
B. respiratory insufficiency.
C. an obstructed airway.
D. respiratory difficulty.
Common signs and symptoms of acute hyperventilation syndrome include:
A. altered mental status and bradycardia.
B. tachypnea and tingling in the extremities.
C. anxiety, dizziness, and severe bradypnea.
D. unilateral paralysis and slurred speech.
A 59-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's condition?
A. rupture of the diaphragm
B. spontaneous pneumothorax
C. exacerbation of his COPD
D. acute pulmonary embolism
A 62-year-old man with a history of congestive heart failure presents with severe respiratory distress and an oxygen saturation of 82%. When you auscultate his lungs, you hear widespread rales. He is conscious and alert, is able to follow simple commands, and can only speak in two- to three-word sentences at a time. You should:
A. apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, monitor his blood pressure, and observe him for signs of improvement or deterioration.
B. force fluid from his alveoli by hyperventilating him with a bag-mask device at a rate of at least 20 breaths/min.
C. place him in a supine position and assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device and high-flow oxygen.
D. place him in a position of comfort, deliver oxygen via nasal cannula, and closely monitor his breathing.
Dyspnea is MOST accurately defined as:
A. labored breathing with reduced tidal volume.
B. shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
C. a complete cessation of respiratory effort.
D. a marked increase in the exhalation phase.
Harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sounds are characteristic of:
A. rhonchi.
B. stridor.
C. wheezing.
D. rales.
In a healthy individual, the brain stem stimulates breathing on the basis of:
A. decreased oxygen levels.
B. decreased carbon dioxide levels.
C. increased oxygen levels.
D. increased carbon dioxide levels.
Which of the following statements regarding pulse oximetry is correct?
A. Pulse oximetry measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen, but does not measure the actual hemoglobin content of the blood.
B. The pulse oximeter is a valuable assessment tool that measures the percentage of red blood cells that contain hemoglobin molecules.
C. Caution must be exercised when using the pulse oximeter on a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning because falsely low readings are common.
D. Most otherwise healthy patients can maintain adequate oxygenation and good skin color with oxygen saturation readings as low as 70% to 80%.
When the level of arterial carbon dioxide rises above normal:
A. exhalation lasts longer than inhalation.
B. respirations increase in rate and depth.
C. the brain stem inhibits respirations.
D. respirations decrease in rate and depth.
Asthma is caused by a response of the:
A. cardiovascular system.
B. endocrine system.
C. immune system.
D. respiratory system.
A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined as:
A. a unilaterally collapsed lung.
B. fluid accumulation outside the lung.
C. a bacterial infection of the lung tissue.
D. diffuse collapsing of the alveoli.
Which of the following conditions would LEAST likely result in hypoxia?
A. prolonged seizures
B. severe anxiety
C. pleural effusion
D. pulmonary edema
When assessing for fluid collection in the lungs during auscultation of lung sounds, you should: Selected Answer:
A. start at the lower lung fields and determine at which level you start hearing clear breath sounds.
B. auscultate the posterior chest first and compare the apex of one lung to the base of the opposite lung.
C. note the presence of a high-pitched whistling sound, which is an indicator of fluid in the lungs.
D. pay special attention to the exhalation phase since this is when you will likely hear rales or rhonchi.
Albuterol is a generic name for:
A. Proventil.
B. Atrovent.
C. Singulair.
D. Alupent.
A conscious and alert 29-year-old female with a history of asthma complains of difficulty breathing that began after her morning jog. The temperature outside is 40°F (5°C). On exam, you hear bilateral expiratory wheezing. After providing 100% oxygen, you should:
A. call medical control and ask how to proceed with treatment.
B. place her in a recumbent position to facilitate breathing.
C. contact medical control and administer an antihistamine.
D. determine if she has been prescribed a beta-agonist inhaler.
A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him 100% oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is:
A. an antihistamine.
B. albuterol.
C. a beta-antagonist.
D. epinephrine.
Which of the following statements regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is correct?
A. SARS is most commonly transmitted by direct contact with blood.
B. SARS is a viral infection that often begins with flulike symptoms.
C. The onset of SARS is typically marked by acute, severe pneumonia.
D. Multiple bacteria have been identified as being the cause of SARS.
Hyperventilation could be associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. an overdose of aspirin.
B. a respiratory infection.
C. high blood glucose levels.
D. a narcotic overdose.
Alkalosis is a condition that occurs when:
A. slow, shallow breathing eliminates too much carbon dioxide.
B. dangerous acids accumulate in the bloodstream.
C. the level of carbon dioxide in the blood increases.
D. blood acidity is reduced by excessive breathing.
In what area of the lungs does respiration occur?
A. alveoli
B. trachea
C. bronchi
D. capillaries
A 22-year-old female patient is complaining of dyspnea and numbness and tingling in her hands and feet after an argument with her fiancé. Her respirations are 40 breaths/min. You should:
A. request a paramedic to give her a sedative drug.
B. provide reassurance and give oxygen as needed.
C. have her breathe into a paper or plastic bag.
D. position her on her left side and transport at once.
A young female is unconscious after intentionally ingesting a large amount of aspirin. You will MOST likely find her respirations:
A. slow and deep.
B. rapid and shallow.
C. deep and rapid.
D. slow and shallow.
When auscultating the lungs of a patient with respiratory distress, you hear adventitious sounds. This means that the patient has:
A. diminished breath sounds.
B. normal breath sounds.
C. an absence of breath sounds.
D. abnormal breath sounds.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), rales, and dependent edema are clinical indicators of:
A. emphysema.
B. bronchitis or asthma.
C. congestive heart failure.
D. severe pneumonia.
Which of the following statements regarding the hypoxic drive is MOST correct?
A. Chronic carbon dioxide elimination often results in activation of the hypoxic drive.
B. 100% supplemental oxygen will always cause apnea in patients with a hypoxic drive.
C. The hypoxic drive stimulates a person to breathe on the basis of low oxygen levels.
D. The hypoxic drive serves as the primary stimulus for breathing in healthy individuals.
You receive a call for a 70-year-old female with respiratory distress. Her husband tells you that she has congestive heart failure; however, he does not think that she has been taking her medications as prescribed. The patient is laboring to breathe, appears tired, and has cyanosis around her lips. You should:
A. administer oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
B. apply a pulse oximeter and obtain vital signs.
C. assist her ventilations with a bag-mask device.
D. obtain a complete list of all of her medications.
You are assisting an asthma patient with his prescribed metered-dose inhaler. After the patient takes a deep breath and depresses the inhaler, you should:
A. advise him to exhale forcefully to ensure medication absorption.
B. immediately reapply the oxygen mask and reassess his condition.
C. allow him to breathe room air and assess his oxygen saturation.
D. instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 67-year-old female who was awakened by shortness of breath and sharp chest pain. Her husband tells you that she was recently discharged from the hospital after having hip surgery. Your assessment reveals dried blood around her mouth, facial cyanosis, and an oxygen saturation of 88%. This patient's presentation is MOST consistent with:
A. acute pulmonary embolism.
B. right-sided heart failure.
C. spontaneous pneumothorax.
D. acute pulmonary edema.
At the onset of an acute asthma attack, patients commonly experience difficulty breathing and:
A. audible stridor.
B. expiratory wheezing.
C. rales and rhonchi.
D. profound cyanosis.
The respiratory distress that accompanies emphysema is caused by:
A. massive constriction of the bronchioles.
B. acute fluid accumulation in the alveoli.
C. chronic stretching of the alveolar walls.
D. repeated exposure to cigarette smoke.
Which of the following statements regarding anaphylaxis is correct?
A. Anaphylaxis is characterized by airway swelling and hypotension.
B. Patients with asthma are at lower risk of developing anaphylaxis.
C. Most anaphylactic reactions occur within 60 minutes after exposure.
D. The signs of anaphylaxis are caused by widespread vasoconstriction.
Acute pulmonary edema would MOST likely develop as the result of:
A. severe hyperventilation.
B. toxic chemical inhalation.
C. an upper airway infection.
D. right-sided heart failure.
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely prevent effective exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs?
A. Dilation of the bronchioles
B. 22 respirations/min and deep respirations
C. Rigid upper airway walls
D. Pulmonary arterial occlusion
Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely to result in hypoxia?
A. Pulmonary edema
B. Lower airway infection
C. Pleural effusion
D. Abdominal pain
Which of the following statements regarding anaphylaxis is MOST correct?
A. The signs of anaphylaxis are caused by widespread vasoconstriction
B. Anaphylaxis is characterized by airway swelling and hypotension
C. Most anaphylactic reactions occur within 60 minutes after exposure
D. Patients with asthma are at lower risk of developing anaphylaxis
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing?
A. 22 breaths/min with an irregular pattern of breathing and cyanosis
B. 24 breaths/min with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin
C. 20 breaths/min with shallow movement of the chest wall and pallor
D. 30 breaths/min with supraclavicular retractions and clammy skin