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EMT - Cardiac Emergencies

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bopapowe's version from 2017-02-22 18:46

Section 1

Question Answer
CVD stands for Cardio Vascular Disease
What is the SeptumA wall that divides the heart down the middle into left and right sides
The upper chambers of the hearts are calledAtriums
Atriums ______ bloodRecieve
The lower chambers of the heart are calledVentricles
Ventricles _____ blood Pump blood from the heart
The Aorta gets blood from theLeft Ventricle and pumps it to the body
The ____ recieves blood from the head and upper extremetiesSuperior Vena Cava
The _____ receives blood from the lower extremitiesInferior Vena Cava
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
The Pulmonary Artery pumps blood to the _____Lungs
The Pulmonary Vein takes blood ____ from the lungsBack to the heart
Normal Electrical impulses for the heart start in the _____Sinus Node just above the atria
Electrical impulses cross the heart through the ____ ______Atrioventricular Nodes AV
The name of the heart muscleMyocardium
In a normal heart increase for blood flow is supplied byDialation of the coronary arteries
blood vessels responsible for delivering oxygentated blood to the heart areCoronary arteries
Coronary arteries feed the heart with fresh O2 and nutrients starting at the ______aorta and travel downwards
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
Subclavian arteries supply blood from the heart to the ______ _______Upper Extremities
The left and right iliac arteries supply blood to the _____ _____Lower Extremities
The Carotid arteries supply blood to the _____Head, and Brain
Vessels that exchange nutrients and oxygen at the cellular levelCapillaries
Blood re-enters the circulatory system and veins through ______ Venules
Systolic blood pressure is _____________________.The maximum pressure exerted by the left ventricle
Diastolic pressure is _________________________.pressure exerted while the left ventricle is at rest
memorize

Cardiac Compromise

Question Answer
Another cause of Ischemia is Failure of O2 and Nutrients flowing through the heart, where tissue starts to die
LOW Blood flow problems to the heart is usually caused by Atherosclerosis - Cholesterol build up and hardening of the arteries
A blockage of a coronary artery is called an _____Occlusion
The term acute is Sudden sharp pain
Acute Myocardial Infarction AMI Where blood flow has been limited and tissue starts to die within the heart
Infarction is Death tissue
Severe diminishment of the hearts ability to pump blood Cardiac Arrest
___________ is the number one cause of death in men and women between 40 and 70 Coronary Artery Disease
memorize

Cardiac Compromise Part 2

Question Answer
Major controllable factors of getting an MI (Myocardial Infarction) areSmoking, high blood pressure, Diabetes, Cholesterol levels, stress and lack of excersize
____ ____ is when for a brief time the heart tissues are not getting enough O2Angina Pectoris
Angina Pectoris, or Angina occurs when the hearts _______Need for oxygen exceeds the supply
Angina pain is typically described asCrushing or squeezing, or like someone is standing on my chest
Angina is usually felt in the _____. or under the _____Mid chest, sternum
Angina can radiate to the ____Jaw, Arms - usually left, midback, upper region of the abdomen
Angina pain can last _ to _ minutes, but no longer than _________3, 8, 15
Unstable Angina is brought on by ___minor stress, and nothing relieves the pain
Stable Angina is characterized bypain relieved by typical methods such as rest, Nitro, O2
memorize

Cardiac Compromise Part 3

Question Answer
Pain of AMI (Acute Myocardial Infarction) SignalsActual Death of cells in the area of the heart where flow is obstructed
About _________ minutes after blood flow is blocked, heart muscles begin to die30 minutes
Syncope is _____Unexplained fainting
AMI vs AnginaAngina can last longer, May not be relieved, not caused by exertion
AMI is considered a ____ ____Heart Attack
Angina is considered a _____ _____, or _____Chest Discomfort or Pain
Generally in AMI the pulse isincreased, irregular
Blood pressure in an AMI can beLower due to cardiac output due to failure
Respiration in an AMICan be found as normal
Skin signs of an AMI areAshen (pale gray) skin, poor perfusion and or cyanosis
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Cardiac Compromise Part 4

Question Answer
Abnormal heart rhythm is calledVentricular Arrhythmia V Fib
What are Premature Ventricular Contractions PVCextra heart beats in a damaged ventricle
Pulse of 100 or moreTachycardia
Slow pulse of 60 or lessBradycardia
Rapid heart rate of 150 - 200Ventricular Tachycardia VT
Disorganized quivering of the ventricles where blood cannot be pumped is calledVentricle Fibrillation
Where the heart lacks the force or power to send blood to the bodyCardiogenic Shock
Cardiogenic Shock can occur up to24 hours after an AMI (Acute Myocardial Infarction)
memorize

Cardiac Compromise CHF

Question Answer
CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) is________.a condition that affects the pumping power of the heart muscles. Specifically refers to the stage in which fluid builds up around the heart and causes it to pump inefficiently.
With CHF blood tends to back up in thePulmonary Veins
With back up of fluid in the Pulmonary Veins, blood staysIn the lungs
Signs of CHF may includedyspnea, edema, fatigue
If the right side of the heart is effected fluid will build up in theLower Extremities
If the left side of the heart is effected fluid will build up in theLeft lungs
Dependent edema is whenFluid builds up in the feet and legs due to CHF
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OPQRST

Question Answer
OOnset
PProvocation
QQuality
RRadiation
SSeverity
TTime
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Interventions

Question Answer
How much Baby Asprin can you administer? 4 81 mg tablets or up to 162 mg
Asprinprevents clots from forming or getting bigger
Nitro should show results within _ min5
A pt. can be given _ doses every 5 min if no relief3
Nitroglycerin comes in 3 formsSpray, tablet, patch
Nitroglycerin has what effect on the bodyRelaxes the muscles to allow better blood flow
You should take the Pt. BP _ min after each Nitro dose5 minutes
Patient should have a _______ sensation after taking a dose of NitroFizzing under tongue
memorize