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EMT - B Airway

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babycatchrrn's version from 2015-08-08 22:04

General Knowledge

Question Answer
Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct? (A) The oxygen content in the alveoli is highest during the exhalation phase. (B) Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries. (C) The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the capillaries. (D) Blood that returns to the lungs from the body has a low carbon dioxide content.(B) Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries.
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Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway? (A) Larynx (B) Pharynx (C) Bronchus (D) Oropharynx(C) Bronchus
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The leaf-shaped structure located superior to the larynx is called the...? (A) Epiglottis (B) Vallecula (C) Cricoid ring (D) Thyroid cartilage(A) Epiglottis
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The ________ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynx. (A) Cricoid (B) Thyroid (C) Laryngeal (D) Pyriform(A) Cricoid
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Structures of the lower airway include all of the following EXCEPT the...? (A) Alveoli (B) Trachea (C) Epiglottis (D) Bronchioles(C) Epiglottis
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The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the...? (A) Bronchioles (B) Alveolar sacs (C) Apex of the lung (D) Pulmonary capillaries(B) Alveolar sacs
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Which of the following structures is contained within the mediastinum? (A) Lungs (B) Larynx (C) Bronchioles (D) Esophagus(D) Esophagus
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The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called? (A) Diffusion (B) Ventilation (C) Respiration (D) Oxygenation(B) Ventilation
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Inhalation occurs when the...? (A) Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and cause an increase in intrathoracic pressure. (B) diaphragm and intercostal muscles ascend and cause an increase in intrathoracic pressure. (C) diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure (D) diaphragm ascends and the intercostal muscles contract, causing a decrease in intrathoracic pressure(C) diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure.
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The diaphragm functions as an involuntary muscle when a person...? (A) Sleeps (B) Coughs (C) Takes a deep breath (D) Holds his or her breath(A) Sleeps
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The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli is ______ mm Hg, while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg. (A) 70, 28 (B) 88, 30 (C) 90, 50 (D) 104, 40(D) 104, 40
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Tidal volume is defined as the volume of air that...?moves into or out of the lungs in a single breath.
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What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min? (A) 5600 mL (B) 6000 mL (C) 7400mL (D) 8000mL(A) 5600mL
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Which of the following factors will cause a decreased minute volume in an adult? (A) Shallow breathing (B) Increased tidal volume (C) Respirations of 20breaths/min (D) slight decrease in respiratory rate(A) Shallow breathing
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In contrast to inhalation, exhalation...? (A) Requires muscular effort to effectively expel air from the lungs (B) is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure (C) occurs when the diaphragm lowers and expels air from the lungs (D) is an active process caused by decreased intrathoracic pressure(B) is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure
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Hypoxia is MOST accurately defined asinadequate oxygen to the tissues and cells
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The hypoxic drive -- the primary stimulus to breathe for patients wtih certain chronic respiratory diseases -- is influenced bylow blood oxygen levels
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Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia? (A) anxiety (B) cyanosis (C)tachycardia (D) restlessness(B) cyanosis
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Which of the following statements regarding oxygenation and ventilation is correct? (A) In carbon monoxide poisoning, ventilation is impared because CO binds to oxygen very quickly (B) oxygenation is the movement of aire into and out of the lungs, whereas ventilation is the exchange of gases (C) In mines or confined places, where oxygen levels are low, ventilation may continue despite adquate oxygenation (D) Oxygenation without adequate ventilation can occur in climbers who quickly ascend to an altitude of lower atm(C) In mines or confined spaces where oxygen levels are low, ventilation may continue despite adequate oxygenation
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Each cell of the body combines nutrients and oxygen and produces energy and waste products through a process calledmetabolism
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The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and blood of the capillaries is calledexternal respiration
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Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by...? (A) adequate amounts of surfactant (B) water or blood in the alveoli (C) surfactant-destroying organisms (D) pulmonary capillary constriction(A) adequate amounts of surfactant
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In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells convert glucose into energy through a process calledaerobic metabolism
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Without adequate oxygen, the body's cells (A) rely solely on glucose which is completely converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (B) cease metabolism altogether, resulting in CO2 accumulation in the blood (C) begin to metabolize fat resulting in the production and accumulation of ketoacids (D) incompletely converts glucose into energy, and lactic acid accumulates in the blood(D) incompletely converts glucose into energy, and lactic acid accumulates in the blood
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The primary wast product of aerobic metabolism is (A) lactic acid (B) pyruvic acid (C) carbon dioxide (D) adenosine triphosphate(C) Carbon dioxide
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General Knowledge 2

Central chemoreceptors located in the medulla provide feedback to increase the rate and depth of breathing when they sense...? (A) slight elevations in CO2 or a decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid (B) slight decreases in CO2 and an increase in the pH of the serebrospinal fluid (C) decreased levels of oxygen in the blood and an increase in the pH of the of the cerebrospinal fluid (D) increased levels of oxygen in the blood and a decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid ; (A) slight elevations in CO2 or decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid

 

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A ventilation/perfusion (V/Q ratio) mismatch occurs whena disruption in blood flow inhibits the exchange of oxygen and CO2 in the lungs, even though the alveoli are filled with fresh oxygen
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If ventilation is impaired, CO2 levels in the bloodstream will increase. This condition is called...? (A) acidosis (B) hypoxia (C) hypoxemia (D) hypercarbia(D) hypercarbia
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Intrapulmonary shunting occurs whenblood coming from the right side of the heart bypasses nonfunctional alveoli and returns to the left side of the heart in an unoxygenated state
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An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges between...? (A) 8 and 15 breaths/min (B) 10 and 18 breaths/min (C) 12 and 20 breaths/min (D) 16 and 24 breaths/min(C) 12 and 20 breaths/min
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Which of the following patients is breathing adequately? (A) a conscious male wtih respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin (B) a conscious female with facial cyanosis and rapid, shallow respirations (C) a conscious male with respirations of 18 breaths/min and reduced tidal volume (D) an unconscious 52-year-old female wtih snoring respirations and cool, pale skin(A)
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Which of the following statements regarding breathing adequancy is correct? (A) Patients wtih a grossly irregular berathing pattern usually do not require assisted ventilation (B) The single most reliable sign of breathing adequacy in the adult is his or her respiratory rate (C) Patients breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate (D) A patient wtih slow respirations and adequate depth will experience an increase in minute volume(C)
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Which of the following would NOT cause a decrease in tidal volume? (A) shallow breathing (B) deep respirations (C) irregular breathing (D) agonal respirations(B) deep respirations
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Irregular respirations characterized by an increased rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called...? (A) Ataxic respirations (B) Agonal respirations (C) eupneic respirations (D) Cheyne-Stokes respirations(D) Cheyne-Stokes respirations
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An unconsciouse patient found ina prone position must be placed in a supine position in case he or she...? (A) Requires CPR (B) begins to vomit (C) regains consciousness (D) has increased tidal volume(A) requires CPR
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What is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious patient? (A) vomitus (B) the tongue (C) blood clots (D) aspirated fluid(B) the tongue
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In which of the following patients would the head tilt-chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway? (A) a 24-year-old male who is found unconscious at the base of a tree (B) a 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed (C) a 45-year-old male who is semiconscious after falling 20 feet (D) a 50-year-old male who is unconscious following head trauma(B)
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The jaw-thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients wtih suspectedcervical spine injuries
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Which of the following patients would MOST likely require insertion of an oropharyngeal airway? (A) 33yo semiconscious patient with reduced tidal volume (B) 40 yo unconscious patient with slow, shallow respirations (C) 51 yo confused patient with severely labored respirations (D) 64 yo conscious patient with rapid and deep respirations(B)
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The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it: can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex

 

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The MOST serious complication associated wtih using a nasopharyngeal airway in a patient with trauma to the head or face ispenetrating the cranium
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A nasopharyngeal airway is insertedwith the bevel facing the septum if inserted into the right nare.
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Section

Question Answer
The upper airway consists of the Nose, mouth, throat, eppiglotis
The portion behind the nose is called the nasopharnxy
The porion behind the mouth is called theoropharnyx
The lower airway consists of the larynyx, trachea, main bronchi, bronchieles and aveloli
The average tidal volume of air for an adult is 500 ml
Brain damage occurs when depreived of O2 for 4 to 6 min
Brain damage is irreversible after 10 min
Hypoxia is when ____body cells and tissue do not get enough O2
Heart Attack MI occurs whenthere is not enough O2 getting to the heart
Pulmanary Edema iswhen fluid builds up in the lungs
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Part 2

Question Answer
Shortness of breath is also calledDyspnea
Normal breath rates for adults is12 and 20 BPM
Normal breath rate for children is15 to 30
Normal breath rate for infants is25 to 50
when suctioning only suction for15 adults, 10 children, 5 infants
The ____ ______ is used to put breathing uncon. patients intoRecovery position
The pressure of gas in an O2 cylinder is approx ___ when full2000 PSI
A NRB mask is capable of deliver _________% of O290
NC can deliver -- to -- percent O2 1-624 to 44
Max flow for NC is6 L
max flow for NRB is15
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Part 2

Question Answer
What percentage of air we breathe is made up of Oxygen21
What percentage of air we breathe is made up of Nitrogen78
When the diaphram relaxes it isExhalation
When the Diaphram contracts it isInhalation
Sellick manuver is also known asCricoid pressure
Artificial ventilation is good when getting10 to 12 BPM for adults 12 to 20 children and infants
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Misc

Cushing's triad is a sign of increased intracranial pressure. It is the triad of: 1. Hypertension (progressively increasing systolic blood pressure) 2. Bradycardia 3. Widening pulse pressure (an increase in the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure over time) Glasgow Coma Scale
Becks triad: narrowing pulse pressure, JVD, muffled heart tones