The backup system of respiratory control, which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood, is called the
The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) is a part of the brain stem and is responsible for
What is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing in an adult?
respirations of 20 breaths/min and bilateral chest movement
What are agonal respirations?
Agonal respirations are ineffective and need to be assisted
Both areas of the pons are used to
augment respirations during emotional or physical stress
The amount of air that remains in the lungs simply to keep them open is called
Dead space is the portion of the respiratory system that
contains no alveoli and does not participate in gas exchange
Signs of adequate breathing in the adult include all of the following, EXCEPT...? (A) a reduction in tidal volume (B) respirations of 20 breaths/min (C) bilaterally clear breath sounds (D) rhythmic inhalation and exhalation
(A) a reduction in tidal volume
As the single EMT-B managing an apneic patient's airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:
mouth-to-mask with one-way valve
What is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious patient?
Breathing occurs as the result of a(n)
increase in carbon dioxide, which decreases the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
What function does the pneumotaxic center serve?
inhibits the DRG (dorsal respiratory group), resulting in shorter, faster respirations
The air you breathe is _______ oxygen, and the air you exhale is _______ oxygen.
The condition causing breathing difficulty in which the bronchioles of the lower airway are significantly narrowed from constriction of the muscle layer is known as
The normal range of breaths per minute for most adults is
All of the following are signs of inadequate breathing except
present and equal breath sounds
A condition in which the cells in the body are not getting an adequate supply of oxygen is known as
A musical whistling sound that is heard in all lung fields upon auscultation of the chest is
In an infant or a child, bradycardia is a sign of
If a patient is experiencing breathing difficulty but is breathing adequately, he or she should be placed in a
position of comfort
Which of the following is an example of a commonly encountered obstructive lung disease?
Amedication commonly prescribed for the patient with a history of breathing problems is a(n)
A condition indicating extreme inspiratory effort in infants and small children in which the chest is drawn inward while the abdomen moves outward is called
All of the following are early signs of breathing difficulty in infants and children except
All of the following are examples of medications delivered via prescribed metered-dose inhalers except (a) Albuterol (b) Epinephrine (c) Isoetharine (d) Metaproterenol
All of the following are medications commonly used for respiratory problems except (a) Tornalate (b) Serevent (c) Alupent (d) Prozac
A possible side effect from a prescribed inhaler is
The total number of MDI doses that an EMT can deliver to a patient with breathing difficulty is
determined by medical direction
How does respiration differ from ventilation?
Respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the simple movement of air between the lungs and the environment.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar membrane in the lungs through a process called
The Hering-Breuer reflex is stimulated when
stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full
Which of the following signs of respiratory distress is typically unique to infants and children?
If an average-sized patient’s chest barely moves during inhalation, even if his or her respiratory rate is normal, you should suspect that
minute volume is decreased
What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?
All of the following will help minimize the risk of gastric distention when ventilating an apneic patient with a BVM device, EXCEPT: a) increasing the amount of delivered tidal volume; b) applying pressure to the cricoid cartilage; c) ventilating the patient at the appropriate rate; d) ensuring the appropriate airway position
a) increasing the amount of delivered tidal volume
Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult patient includes:
suctioning while withdrawing the catheter from the oropharynx
The jaw-thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients with suspected:
cervical spine injuries
An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is less than:
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must ensure that the:
reservoir bag is fully inflated
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately ______ pounds per square inch (psi).
Which of the following statements regarding the one-person bag-valve mask (BVM) device is correct?: a) The BVM device delivers more tidal volume and a higher oxygen concentration than the mouth-to-mask technique; b) BVM ventilations should be delivered over 1 second when the device is being operated by one person; c) The C-clamp method of holding the mask to the face is not effective when ventilating a patient with a BVM; d) Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one EMT-B is operating the BVM device
d) Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one EMT-B is operating the BVM device
With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ____% oxygen.
A nasopharyngeal airway is inserted:
with the bevel facing the septum if inserted into the right nare
To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the:
corner of the mouth to the earlobe
What is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed positive-pressure ventilations with a BVM device?
Adequate rise of the chest when squeezing the bag
Which of the following patients would MOST likely require insertion of an oropharyngeal airway?: a) A 64-year-old conscious patient with rapid and deep respirations; b) A 33-year-old semiconscious patient with reduced tidal volume; c) A 51-year-old confused patient with severely labored respirations; d) A 40-year-old unconscious patient with slow, shallow respirations
d) A 40-year-old unconscious patient with slow, shallow respirations
A 71-year-old male is semiconscious following a sudden, severe headache. There is vomitus on his face and he is breathing with slow, shallow respirations. The MOST appropriate initial airway management for this patient is to:
perform oropharyngeal suctioning
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:
You are dispatched to a residence where a middle-aged man was found unconscious in his front yard. There are no witnesses that can tell you what happened. You find him in a prone position; his eyes are closed and he is not moving. Your FIRST action should be to:
log roll him as a unit to a supine position
Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?: a) Conscious male with respirations of 22 breaths/min and pink skin; b) Unconscious 52-year-old female with snoring respirations and cool, pale skin; c) Conscious male with respirations of 18 breaths/min and reduced tidal volume; d) Confused female with facial cyanosis and rapid, shallow respirations
a) Conscious male with respirations of 22 breaths/min and pink skin
In which of the following patients would the head-tilt chin-lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway?: a) A 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed; b) A 45-year-old male who is semiconscious after falling 20 feet; c) A 50-year-old male who is unconscious following head trauma; d) A 24-year-old male who is found unconscious at the base of a tree
a) A 37-year-old female who is found unconscious in her bed
A 37-year-old male has a partial foreign body airway obstruction. He is conscious and alert and is coughing forcefully. His skin is pink, warm, and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes: