Emotivism and Prescriptivism

archiebw's version from 2016-04-06 21:26

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the origin of emotivism?The Vienna circle and logical positivism.
According to David Hume, what is the source of right and wrong, as opposed to what?Sentiment, and reason, respectively.
What is David Hume's famous phrase that influenced emotivists?You can't jump from an 'is' to an 'ought'.
Who was the leading British emotivist?A.J. Ayer
What would A.J. Ayer say that people who provide reasons for opinions are doing?Merely appealing to emotions.
Is Ayer deontological or teleological?Neither.
Who developed Ayer's ideas?C.L. Stevenson
According to Ayer, what are the only kinds of meaningful statements?Analytic statements and synthetic statements.
What might Ayer have to say about the word 'steal'?It invokes feelings about an occurrence, therefore it is an interpretation of an event and so meaningless.

Section 2

Question Answer
In which book did C.L. Stevenson include his theory, and when was it published?'Ethics and Language', and 1945.
How did C.L. Stevenson differ from Ayer? He thought that arguments involved a genuine disagreement.
Of what did Stevenson think moral judgements were made up?A part conveying the person's attitude and a part that has the intention of persuading the listener to take the same attitude.
Of what are statements the result, according to Stevenson, and what part of Ayer's theory does this go against?Fundamental beliefs, and the 'hurrah'/'boo' bit.


Question Answer
What is James Rachels' criticism of both Ayer and Stevenson?The statement 'I like coffee' needs no reason, whereas condemning murder is non-arbitrary and fundamentally different.
In the words of Peter Vardy and Paul Grosch, as what does emotivism view moral discussions?“Just so much hot air and nothing else.”
What is a troubling implication of emotivism?Rape is not intrinsically bad and condemnation is just a personal feeling.


Question Answer
What was the additional quality R.M. Hare invested in moral statements?A prescriptive quality.
How does R.M. Hare relate his theory to the colour red?If someone says something is red, he is implying that all else in colour like it is red.
What does R.M. Hare say it is in our best interest to do, and to what is this similar?To prescribe advice to others because we would want it, and The Golden Rule.
With what part of Kant's theory does Prescriptivism share its essence?Kant's 'formula of universal law', namely his instruction to “act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.”
What is a criticism of the Golden Rule, and thus Prescriptivism, and who said it?It doesn't account for different preferences, and J.L. Mackie.