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Emotion & Stress

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icer215's version from 2016-08-26 03:33

Section

Question Answer
Three Components of EmotionCognitive, Physiological, Behavioral
CognitiveEvaluate certain events and objects, Thoughts, beliefs, determination, and expectations that influence emotional responses
PhysiologicalActive physiological changes that express the emotional experience
BehavioralIncludes different expressions- Action tendencies, Bodily symptoms, Facial and vocal expression
Action tendenciesprepare and direct motor responses
Bodily symptomsexpress the emotional experience
FearBrows are raised, Eyes are opened, Mouth is slightly opened, Uses 5 linear muscles and 1 sphincter for the mouth
AngerBrows are lowered, Lips are pressed, Eyes are bulging out, Uses 4 linear muscles and 1 sphincter for the mouth
HappinessCorners of the mouth is raised , Uses 6 linear muscles
SurpriseBrows are arched, Eyes are open, Jaws are dropped, Uses 3 linear muscles
DisgustUpper lip is raised, Cheeks are raised, Nose bridge is wrinkled, Uses 6 linear muscles
SadnessMouth corners are lowered, Uses 6 linear muscles
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Charles DarwinProposed that emotions are evolved and adapted over time. Studied and compared facial expressions of animals and humans
Expression of certain emotions characterized speciesHe observed that a blind individual still adapted similar body and facial expression as others
Three principlesPrinciple of serviceable habits, Antithesis, Expressive habits
Principle of serviceable habitsFurrowing the eyebrow prevents light from entering the light ➙ decreases the field of vision ➙ different expression of emotions like anger
AntithesisPassive expression of shrugging the shoulder that is opposite to aggressive expression
Expressive habitsHabits that come into play to express nervousness or excitement such as shaking your foot
James-Lange theoryStates that emotion is a result of physiological reactions to different events around us. Stimulus ➙ arousal ➙ interpretation of physical reactions ➙ emotions
Encountering a bear in a forest➙ autonomic nervous system is reacted, increased heart beat and tension in muscles ➙ brain interprets the reaction ➙ emotion of fear is expressed
Cannon-Bard theoryStates that physiological responses and expression of emotions occur simultaneously. Stimulus – simultaneous arousal and emotion
Sensory signalis transmitted to thalamus and then information is sent to amygdala and brain cortex and at the same time autonomic nervous system send signals to muscle to tense, increases heart rate, etc.
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Question Answer
Schachter-Singer theoryStates when stimulus is given, perception and interpretation occurs first then autonomic arousal is triggered to cause emotions. Stimulus ➙ appraisal ➙ physiological changes + action tendencies ➙ emotion
Ancient Greece and the Middle AgesBelieved that excess emotion can damage vital organs. Aristotle believed all emotions were correspondent to appetite
Evolutionary theoriesDuring 19th century, Darwin stated that emotions are evolved and adapted over time
Somatic theoriesInclude James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter-Singer theory and etc. (refer to the past lessons to learn more in details)
Cognitive theoriesArguments about relationship between emotion and judgment, evaluations, and thoughts. Richard Lazarus’s theory is divided into three categories
Richard Lazarus’s theory is divided into three categoriesCognitive appraisal, Physiological changes, Action
Cognitive appraisalA stimulus is cognitively assessed cueing the emotions
Physiological changesBiological changes occur
ActionEmotions are felt
Situated perspective on emotionThe role of external factors in developing emotion is established by Paul E. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino
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Question Answer
Social relationship and emotionhas close relationship
Emotional signalmediates the behavior of an organism = action-oriented engagement
Phobiasof certain things can be studied by understanding the perspective of how emotions are formed n a person
Role of the Limbic System in EmotionComplex structure under the cerebrum, Sometimes called as the emotional nervous system, Responsible for our emotions
Structure that is involved in emotion includesAmygdala, Thalamus and hypothalamus, Cingulate gyrus
AmygdalaAlmond-shaped mass structure in the left and right temporal lobe, Involved in evaluating different emotions from receiving stimulus, Prepares the body for fight-or-flight responses, Greater emotional arousal ➙ followed by learning ➙ enhanced retention of memory from learning
Thalamus and hypothalamusLinked to changes in emotional reactivity. Controls necessary neurotransmitters for different emotions
Cingulate gyrusFound in the medial side of the brain aside to the corpus callosum, Pleasant memories from past emotions, Emotion reaction from aggressive and painful behavior
Emotions and memoryare closely related to each other
Pleasant emotionsare often remembered better and contain more contextual details of the memory
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Emotionally arousingstimulus enhances memory
Implicit memoryProcedural memories that are associated with carrying out certain performance, Type of Nondeclarative memory, Associated with amygdala
Explicit memoryUses this memory every day, Type of declarative memory that is divided into two other types of memory, Associated with hippocampus
Episodic memorylong-term memories
Semantic memoryfactual, conceptual, and general information/knowledge
Prefrontal cortexis critical for emotional experience, and is also important in temperament and decision making. Complete maturation at the age of 25 (latest)
Covers the frontal part of the frontal lobe of the brainRight behind the forehead
Prefrontal cortex FunctionsMediates thoughts (conflicting), Decision making, Prediction, Suppress emotions or sexual urges, Pay attention, Learn
Damage can result inPersonality changes
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Question Answer
Personality changesRecklessness and impulsive characteristics may appear. Emotional distress
Autonomic nervous system(ANS)is part of peripheral nervous system and is divided into next two systems
ANSLocated in the medulla oblongata within the brain, Involuntary regulation in the body, Regulated by hypothalamus
Parasympathetic nervous system(PNS)Rest and digest response, When you are relaxed and calm
PNS Responsible forIncreased stomach activity (peristalsis and secretion is stimulated), Pupils constrict, Decreased blood flow to the muscles, Decreased heart rate and respiration rate
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS)Fight or flight response, When you are surprised, excited and scared
SNS Responsible forRelease epinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal glands à prepare for challenges, Increasing heart rate and respiration rate, Blood sugar level and blood pressure increase, Pupil is dilated, Digestive activity is slowed down to provide energy for action to take place
Galvanic skin responseTo measure emotion. The autonomic response including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and muscle tension is measured
AppraisalEmotional responses from evaluating specific stimulus. Correlation between appraisal and coping
Occurs in response to stressSource of stress includes threats and Responses can vary
Primary appraisalYou can ignore the stress, “This is not important”
Secondary appraisalYou can apply coping methods, “I can do it if I do best”
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Different types of stressorsEnvironmental stressors, Daily stress events, Life changes, Workplace stressors, Chemical stressors
Environmental stressorsOvercrowded places
Daily stress eventsTraffic, Sleep problems
Life changesHaving a child, Marriage/ divorce
Workplace stressorsExcessive workload, Job insecurities, Conflicts with coworkers/supervisors
Chemical stressorsTobacco, Alcohol, Drug
Social stressorsConflict with partners, Hospitalization of family/friends
Effects of stress on psychological functionsLots of variations between individuals
Stress can generally causeDepression, Anxiety, Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
PhysiologicalStress influences our health and Response involves three stages
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Question Answer
Physiological Response involves three stagesThe alarm reaction, The stage of resistance, The stage of exhaustionThe alarm reaction
The alarm reactionBody prepares itself to deal with the stressors. Pituitary gland releases hormones into bloodstream like adrenaline, cortisol and norepinephrine, then energy level and muscle tension is increased and sensitivity to pain is decreased. The digestive system is shut down and blood pressure rises
The stage of resistanceBody uses up all the resources and become tired, Increased susceptibility to illness
The stage of exhaustionCompletely drained resources (hormones, energy, etc.), Different symptoms appear anxiety, depression, poor judgments
EmotionalStress influences our mood and sense of well-being. One can feel depressed and anxious
Unstable feelingsDiscomfort, Pressure, Fear
BehavioralStress influences our behavior, Change in daily physical activity
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Question Answer
Change in daily physical activityOne can start smoking (poor judgments), Excess consumption of food (eating habits change), Difficult to sleep (irritability)
There are variety of techniques to manage stress, which includePhysical changes, Psychological changes
Physical changesExercise, eat, and sleep at set times, Spend time with people that makes you happy (social support), Make new habits that you truly enjoy, Avoid alcohols, tobacco, and alcohol
Exercise, eat, and sleep at set timesHealthy food and enough sleep hours, Take a break while working/studying/etc.
Make new habits that you truly enjoyDancing, watching movies, listening to music, etc.
Psychological changesRelaxation techniques (meditate)
Relaxation techniques (meditate)Close your eyes and focus on your breathing, Clear mind off of the stressors, Think of calming pictures, happy places, etc., Develop self-compassion, patience, generosity, forgiveness, and etc.
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