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Emergency 3

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juniperk's version from 2018-05-03 00:31

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Question Answer
Anthrax- Incubation perioid? 3 Main methods of infections?The incubation period is 1 to 6 days. There are three main methods of infection: skin contact, gastrointestinal ingestion, and inhalation.
Anthrax- SymptomsIngestion of anthrax results in fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and occasionally ascites. If severe diarrhea develops, decreased intravascular volume becomes the major treatment concern. The bacterium targets the terminal ileum and cecum. Sepsis can occur. Inhaling anthrax -mimic those of the flu, and usually treatment is sought only when the second stage of severe respiratory distress occurs.
Anthrax- precautions? Tx?PCN within 24 hours to prevent death. Standard precautions are the only ones indicated to protect the caregiver exposed to a patient infected with anthrax. The patient is not contagious, and the disease cannot spread from person to person.
Smallpox- Incubation perioid? 12 days. It is extremely contagious and is spread by direct contact or by droplets from person to person only after the fever has decreased and the rash phase has begun.
Signs and symptoms of smallpox? high fever, malaise, headache, backache, and prostration. After 1 to 2 days, a maculopapular rash appears.
Smallpox- Tx? precautions?supportive care with antibiotic agents for any additional infection. The patient must be isolated with the use of airborn precautions.
Vesicant- Signs and Symptoms Superficial to partial-thickness burn with vesicles that coalesce
Vesicant- Decontamination and TreatmentSoap and water Blot; do not rub dry. Eye- irrigation
Nerve- Signs and SymptomsIncreased secretions, gastrointestinal motility, diarrhea, bronchospasm
Nerve- Decontamination and TreatmentSoap and water Supportive care Benzodiazepines Pralidoxime Atropine
Blood/ cyanide- Signs and SymptomsInhalation—tachypnea, tachycardia, coma, seizures; can progress to respiratory arrest, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, death
Blood/Cyanide- Decontamination and TreatmentSodium nitrite Sodium thiocyanate Amyl nitrate Hydroxocobalamin
Pulmonary- Signs and SymptomsPulmonary edema, bronchospasm
Pulmonary- Decontamination and TreatmentAirway management Ventilatory support Bronchoscopy
What is External irradiation exposure? occurs when all or part of the body is exposed to radiation that penetrates or passes completely through the body. In this type of exposure, the person is not radioactive and does not require special isolation or decontamination measures. Irradiation does not necessarily constitute a medical emergency.
What is Contamination? the body is exposed to radioactive gases, liquids, or solids either externally or internally. If internal, the contaminant can be deposited within the body. Contamination requires immediate medical management to prevent incorporation.
What is Incorporation exposure?actual uptake of radioactive material into the cells, tissues, and susceptible organs. The organs involved are usually the kidneys, bones, liver, and thyroid.
radiation exposure: probable either no initial symptoms or only minimal symptoms (e.g., nausea and vomiting), or these symptoms resolve within a few hours. These patients should have a complete blood count drawn and may be discharged with instructions to return if any symptoms recur.
radiation exposure: possiblepresent with nausea and vomiting that persist for 24 to 48 hours.
radiation exposure: improbablereceived more than 800 rad of total-body penetrating irradiation. People in this group demonstrate an acute onset of vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and shock. Any neurologic symptoms suggest a lethal dose of radiation
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