lolernie's version from 2015-12-14 13:57


Question Answer
Maxillary prominance and mandibular process fail to fuseMacrostomia (big mouth)
Maxillary prominance and mandibular process over-fusemicrostomia (small mouth)
Medial nasal prominances don't fuse properlycleft upper lip
mandibular processes don't fuse properlycleft lower lip
lateral nasal prominence and maxillary process don't fusebilateral oblique cleft lip
Intermaxillary segment makes what palateprimary palate
Lateral palatine processessecondary palate
Soft palate fusion problem means whatposterior palate, bifid uvula
Pharyngeal apparatus -branchial arch 1 derivativeTympanic membrane, most of tongue
Pharyngeal apparatus -branchial arch 2 derivativeFacial expression muscles
Pharyngeal apparatus -branchial arch 3 derivativePharyngeal tongue, carotid
Pharyngeal apparatus -branchial arch 4 derivativeAortic arch
auricular hillocksfrom 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches, forms external shape of eat
Treacher collins (neural crest migration, weird lower eyelids palpebral coloboma), pierre robin syndrone (small mandible, airway problem) 1st pharyngeal arch syndrome
DiGeorge defect related to what pouches..3rd and 4th pharyngeal arch (thymus, parathyroid)
Pharyngeal cyst or fistularemnant of pharnygeal groove. - found on side of neck
thryroglossa cystat midline of neck, from thyroid duct that should've degenerated
Congeintal hypothyroidism effectsfacial defects, dwarfism
CraniopharyngiomaRathke's pouch (formed during Ant pitui formation) remnant infringes on optic chiasm (vision defect)
Crania bifidumNT defect, folate, elevated AFP, - what herniates out will vary
AnencephalyNo brain b/c anterior NT doesn't close (polyhydram, can't swallow
Microcephalysmall head b/c you have small brain (normal face)
cleidocranial dysostisclavicle, cranial problem
craniostenosispremature fusion
scaphocephaly (aka dolichocephaly) sutureSagittal (long head) premature closure
Oxycephaly sutureCoronal or lamboid (conehead) premature closure bilateral
plagiocephalyCoronal or lamboid (conehead) premature closure unilateral
trigonocephalyfrontal (metopic) suture premature closure, rhino head
all craniostenosis can be fixed by..corrective headgear
primary brain development vesicles?3, 5. prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
secondary vesicles? (brain)telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon(pons, cerebell), myelencephalon(medul)
holoprosencephalyeverythings squished together due to failure of telencephalon to fully separate
hypotelorism (close together eyes) or cyclopia can result on what brain development problemtelencephalon doesn't divide, aka holoprosencephaly (also makes you retarded and cleft palate)
Arnold chiari syndromeposterior fossa doesn't develop, so cerebellum doesn't have room to grow
eye develops from what prosencephalon->optic vesicle->optic cup
colobomo iridisincomplete closure of choroid (optic) fissure - keyhole pupil
cornea and lens develop from __dermectoderm
retinoblastomaleukocoria(white pupil), tumor from retina
retrolental fibroplasiacaused by excessive o2 to infant - retina detaches
persistent iridopupilary membranecrazy divided pupil from incomplete degeneration of connective tissue over lens
come off of mesonephric duct and form kidneysUreteric buds
bladder derived from _________ __dermhindgut endoderm
potter's syndromebilateral renal agenesis (oligohydramnios obv, aka not much)
kidney formation changes blood vessels as it climbs, if old ones don't disappearpossible obstructed ureter, Polycystic kidneys and ruined kidneys
polar renal arteryis not supposed to be there, if it sticks around it can block ureter
Horseshoe kidney increased riskkdiney stones, backed up urine. kidney never makes it past IMA
adrenal glands develop from what layermesoderm and neural crest, independent of kidneys
Epispadiasbifid penis or clit on dorsal (top, epi) side - BODY WALL problem
Hypospadiasurethral opening on ventral side of penis
incomplete closure of urogenital folds..hypospadias, non existant in females since they stay open in female to form vagina
allantois becomes..the urachus which becomes the median umbilical lig.
Patent urachuscyst or leaky urine belly button
germ cells migrate from yolk sac togonadal ridges
no migration of germ cells to gonadal ridgesgonadal dysgenesis/agenesis
mesonephric duct(wolfian)gives rise to SEED in med. seminal vesicles, epididymus, ejac. duct, ductus deferens
paramesonephric duct(mullerian)PUF, proximal vagina, uterus, fallopian tube
cryptoorchismgubernaculum fails, testes stuck in inguinal canal
processus vaginalispassage from periotneum to scrotum if patent.
wolfian duct other namemesonephric
bicornate uterusuterine septum doesn't degenerate
Only one paramesonephric duct developsunicornate uterus
persistent urogenital sinusvaginal agenesis , like a cloaca (external vagina may be normal)
vaginal atresiaimproper induction of vaginal plate, blind ended vagina
Pseudohermaphroditechromosomes don't match secondary sex characteristics
XX with too much ACTHfemale pseudohermaphrodite
defective 21-hydroxylase or 11-beta hydroxylasefemale pseudohermaphrodism (xx + masculined genitalia)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome or lack of AMF (antimulerian factor)male pseudohermaphrodite

Section M/F genital homologues

Question Answer
Glans PenisGlans Clitoris
Corpus cavernosum & spongiosumvestibular bulbs
Bulbourethral glands (cowpers)greater vestibular glands (bartholin's glands)
Prostate glandGlands of Skene
Ventral shaft of penislabia minora
ScrotumLabia majora
Genital tubercle turns toglans, corpus cavernosum, and vestibule bulbs
urogenital sinus turns tobulbourethram gland, prostate gland, skenes gland (females) Glands of bartholin (female)
Urogenital folds turn toshaft and labia minora
labioscrotal swellinglabia majora & scrotum