Embryo 101

gsafsaf's version from 2015-05-25 19:59

Embryological layer derivatives

Question Answer
Neural Crest Cell derivative Autonomic NS
Neural Crest Cell derivative Schwann cells
Neural Crest Cell derivative Dorsal root ganglia
Neural Crest Cell derivative Sensory nerves
Neural Crest Cell derivative Cranial nerves
Neural Crest Cell derivative Malleus, Incus, Stapes
Neural Crest Cell derivative Cornea
Neural Crest Cell derivative Sclera
Neural Crest Cell derivative Ciliary muscle
Neural Crest Cell derivative Iris pigment cells
Neural Crest Cell derivative Odontoblasts
Neural Crest Cell derivative Parafollicular C cells of thyroid
Neural Crest Cell derivative Aorticopulmonary septum
Neural Crest Cell derivative Enteric nervous system
Neural Crest Cell derivative Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
Neural Crest Cell derivative Melanocytes
Neuroectoderm derivative CNS neurons
Neuroectoderm derivative Oligodendrocytes
Neuroectoderm derivative Astrocytes
Neuroectoderm derivative Ependymal cells
Neuroectoderm derivative Optic nerve
Neuroectoderm derivative Retina
Neuroectoderm derivative Pineal Gland
Neuroectoderm derivative Posterior pituitary
Surface ectoderm derivative Eye lens
Surface ectoderm derivative Olfactory epithelium
Surface ectoderm derivative Inner ear (minus ossicles)
Surface ectoderm derivative Anterior pituitary
Surface ectoderm derivative Oral epithelium
Surface ectoderm derivative Salivary glands
Surface ectoderm derivative Epidermis
Surface ectoderm derivative Sweat glands
Surface ectoderm derivative Mammary glands
Surface ectoderm derivative Anal canal distal to pectinate line
Endoderm derivativeGI tract (esophagus to pectinate line)
Endoderm derivativeLiver
Endoderm derivativeGallbladder
Endoderm derivativePancreas
Endoderm derivativeThymus
Endoderm derivativeLungs
Endoderm derivativeParathyroid glands
Endoderm derivativeFollicular cells of thyroid
Endoderm derivativeLower 2/3 of vagina
Endoderm derivativeBladder/urethral epithelium
Mesoderm derivativeUpper 1/3 of vagina
Mesoderm derivativeBone
Mesoderm derivativeMuscle
Mesoderm derivativeBone marrow
Mesoderm derivativeBlood cells
Mesoderm derivativeHeart
Mesoderm derivativeBlood vessels
Mesoderm derivativeLypmhatics
Mesoderm derivativeDermis of skin
Mesoderm derivativeKidneys, adrenal cortex
Mesoderm derivativeGonads


Question Answer
Forebrain (Prosencephalon) @ wk 5Telencephalon
Forebrain (Prosencephalon) @ wk 5Diencephalon
Midbrain (Mesencephalon) @ wk 5Little change
Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) @ wk5Metencephalon
Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) @ wk5Myelencephalon
Telencephalon adult structureCerebral hemispheres
Telencephalon adult structureBasal ganglia
Telencephalon adult structureHippocampus
Telencephalon adult structureAmygdala
Diencephalon adult structureThalamus
Diencephalon adult structureHypothalamus
Diencephalon adult structureOptic nerves + tracts
Mesencephalon adult structureMidbrain
Metencephalon adult structure Cerebellum
Metencephalon adult structure Pons
Myelencephalon adult structureMedulla

Some congenital disorders

Question Answer
Elevated maternal AFPneural tube defect
Elevated maternal AFPanterior abdominal wall defect
Decreased maternal AFP Down's syndrome
Chiari IHerniation of cerebellar tonsils
Chiari IMay cause syringomyelia
Chiari IILumbosacral myelomeningocele
Chiari IIMore significant herniation of cerebellar tonsils/vermis
Chiari IIHydrocephalus
Dandy-Walker SyndromeEnlarged posterior fossa
Dandy-Walker SyndromeCerebellar vermis fails to develop
Dandy-Walker SyndromeDilation of the 4th ventricle
Dandy-Walker SyndromeHydrocephalus
Dandy-Walker SyndromeSpina bifida
Decreased Estriol levelsPlacental insufficiency
Increased hCG levelsMultiple gestation
Increased hCG levelsDown's syndrome
Decreased hCG levelsEctopic/failing pregnancy
Decreased hCG levelsEdward Syndrome (Trisomy 18)
Decreased hCG levelsPatau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)

Branchial derivatives

Question Answer
CleftLateral side of arch
PouchMedial side of arch
Embryonic tissue of Arch musclesMesoderm
Embryonic tissue of CleftEctoderm
Embryonic tissue of PouchEndoderm
1st Branchial cleftExternal auditory meatus
2nd Branchial cleftTemporary cervical sinus
3rd Branchial cleftTemporary cervical sinus
4th Branchial cleftTemporary cervical sinus
Thyroglossal duct cystMidline
Thyroglossal duct cystDoes move with swallowing
Branchial cleft cystDoes NOT move with swallowing
Branchial cleft cystLateral neck
1st Branchial pouch derivativeMiddle ear cavity
1st Branchial pouch derivativeEustachian tubes
1st Branchial pouch derivativeMastoid air cells
2nd Branchial pouch derivativeEpithelial lining of tonsils
3rd Branchial pouch derivativeInferior parathyroid glands
3rd Branchial pouch derivativeThymus
4th Branchial pouch derivativeSuperior parathyroid glands
Embryonic tissue of most of Arch cartilage Neural Crest Cells
1st Branchial Arch Cartilage derivativeMeckel's cartilage
Meckel's cartilageMandible, mandibular ligament, malleus & incus
1st Branchial Arch Muscle derivativeMuscles of mastication
Muscles of masticationMasseter, Medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, Temporalis
1st Branchial Arch Muscle derivative Mylohyoid
1st Branchial Arch Muscle derivative Tensor Tympani
1st Branchial Arch Muscle derivativeTensor veli palatini
1st Branchial Arch Muscle derivativeAnterior 2/3 of tongue
1st Branchial Arch Nerve derivativeMandibular + Maxillary branches of Trigeminal CN V
1st Branchial Arch Congenital MalformationTreacher-Collins Syndrome
2nd Branchial Arch Cartilage derivative Stapes, Stylohyoid ligament, Lesser horn of the hyoid
2nd Branchial Arch Muscle derivative Muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid
2nd Branchial Arch Nerve derivativeFacial CN VII
2nd Branchial Arch Congenital MalformationPharyngocutaneous fistula
3rd Branchial Arch Muscle derivativeStylopharyngeus
3rd Branchial Arch Nerve derivativeGlossopharyngeal CN IX
4th Branchial Arch Muscle derivativeCricothyroid + Pharyngeal
4th & 6th Branchial Arch Cartilage derivativeCricoid + thyroid & cartilages of larynx
6th Branchial Arch Muscle derivativeLaryngeal muscles besides Cricothyroid
4th + 6th Branchial Arch Nerve derivativeVagus CN X
Muscles innervated by Superior laryngeal branch of VagusCricothyroid + Pharyngeal muscles
Muscles innervated by Recurrent laryngeal branch of VagusLaryngeal muscles besides Cricothyroid/Pharyngeal

GI Embryo

Question Answer
ForegutEsophagus, stomach, 1st + 2nd parts duodenum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
ForegutCeliac trunk
ForegutPrimarily parasympathetic - Vagus; Some sympathetic - splanchnic
Midgut3rd + 4th parts duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, proximal 2/3 transverse colon
MidgutSuperior mesenteric artery
MidgutPrimarily parasympathetic - Vagus; Some sympathetic - splanchnic
HindgutDistal 1/3 transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum to pectinate line
HindgutInferior mesenteric artery
HindgutParasympathetic - pelvic splanchnic; Sympathetic - lumbar splanchnic