ktepps's version from 2015-05-10 19:29


Question Answer
digestive tube epithelium and glandsderived from endoderm
connective and muscular tissue covering of lungsderived from splanchnic mesoderm
primative gutresult of longitudinal and transverse folding
forgutfrom cranial intestinal portal to buccopharyngial membrane
buccopharyngeal membraneinside stomodeum bilaminary=endoderm and ectoderm
midgutbetween cranial and caudal intestinal wall; vitelline duct/yolk duct
hindgutcaudal-intestinal portal the cloacal membrane
stomodeumoral opening to buccopharyngeal membrane=becomes mouth
proctodenumclocal membrant to the extenal opening= becomes anal canal and anus
doudenum arises from forgut and midgut
colon arises frommidgut and hindgut
which side of the stomach develops faster?dorsal side
dorsal and ventral mesogastrium become ? greater and lesser omentum
spleen arises from?mesoderm of dorsal mesogastruim
gastro-spleenic ligament arises from?portion of mesoderm attached to thestomach
remun arises?develops as an outgrowth of the dorsal surface of
reticulum arises?left ventral buldge
omasumarises?lesser curvature
tongue orginally develops inthe floor of the phyranx
tongue is innervated bytrigeminal (5) sensory, facial (7) fungiform papila, glossopharyngeal(9), valate & follate, hypoglossal(12) to the musculature, vagus(10), caudal part of tounge
dental lamina or oral epitheliumhistomordial ectoderm rising into dental bud
dental papilla and dentine fromneural crest (mesenchyme)
dentin tooth?neural crest
hypobranchial eminence becomescaudal 2/3 of the tongue (fromthe 2,3,4 pharangeal arches)
enamel toothectoderm
cementoblastmesenchymal cells
new born calf stomach?rumen and reticulum = half of abomasum
8 week calf?rumen &reticulum=abomasum
12 week calf? rumen &reticulum= double size of abomasum
rostral 2/3 of tongue1 pharyngeal arches aka paired lateral swelling and median tuberculum impar


Question Answer
development of the midgut?rapid elongation of the gut forming primary intestinal loop
cranial limb of the intestinal looppart of the doudenum,jejunum and 1/2 ilium
caudal limb of the intestinal loop1/2 lower ileum, cecum, ascending colon, part transverse colonucc
what limb of the intestinal loop elongates more rapidlydorsal limb-causes 290 degree around cranial mesinateic artery mesesntery fuse
colon cat & dog?ascending colon short &straight followed by transverse colon
colonhorse-ascending colon>elongated loop>coils>spirals and distal loops cattle-centripetal turns>central flexure &2 centrifugal turns small rum-about 3 centripital3 centrifugal turns ascending colon>ventral&doraal ascending colon>right ventral&left ventral -left&left dorsal &right dorsal
pig colonascending colon>cetripetal & centrifugal coils
urorectal septum is what/made of?junction of the hind gut&allantois,thicking of the endoderm and surround mesenchyme
what does the urorectal septum devide?cloaoca>dorsal rectum and ventral urogenital @ clocal membrane>dorsal anal membrane and ventral urogenital membrane (perineal body)
bladderproximal allantois&cranial urogenital sinus
urachusremaining allantois>degenerates
anal & urogenital membranes?degeberate to become deriviatives of proctoduem
forgut blood supplyciliac artery
midgut blood supplycranial mesenteric artery
hindgut blood supplycaudal mesenteric artery
atersiacloser of the lumen =stonosis of the intestinal tract
atresia anicow pigs-failure of the anal membrane to break
counter-rotationsitus invertus
urorectal fistulacalves-communication between the rectum and urogenital sinus
oompalocelefailure of the retraction of the midgut loop=congenital hernia
patent urachusurachus remains open[drips urine]
meckels diverticulumhorse pig-belly button stays open
liverdevelops as a central outgrowth from gut endoderm@terminal forgut---hepatic bud/diverticulum=rapid proliferation
diverticulum/hepatic bud develops into?pars hepatica(liver parenchyma&hepatic ducts) pars cystica(gall bladder&cystic duct) endoderm
hepatic synusoids[epi?]epithelial liver cords and vitelline veins
liver cordshepatocytes endoderm
mesoderm of the septum transversum bcms ?kupffer cells&connective tissue cells


Question Answer
hepatic lobulesproliferating and branching livercords
pars cysticagallbladder and cystic duct
bile duct contains?cystic and hypatic duct
connective tissue capsule and lig of liverspalnchnic mesoderm
dorsal pancreatic bud becomes what?dorsal mesentery(left lobe of pancreas)
ventral pancreatic budhepatic diverticulum(right lobe of pancreas)
endodermal epithelium of pancreatic diverticulumpancreatic acini(exocrine part)
between acinipancreatic islets (endocrine part)
acessory panc duct @ minor duo ductdorsal duct left limb
main panc duct @ major duo ductorginal ventral duct
ox/piglarge acc and no main panc
sheep/goatno acessory duct
major doudenal papilla w/pact ductventral pacr bud
what part of the gut is the fastest growingmidgut
lung bud/resp diverticulumoutgrowth of ventral wall of forgut (endo & meso)


Question Answer
lining of larnx, trachea,brochi,lungsendodermal epi
cart and mmsl of resp tractsplanchnic mesoderm
laryngo-tracheal groove (cell type?)longitudinal divertic of endodermal epi cells growing ventrally frm forgut in the median plane
tracheo-esophagel septumridges of meschenchymal proliferation on bothside of the L-T groove=divides the forgut into dorsal esophagus and ventral portion(largeo-tracheal tube and lung bud)
lung budaka respiratory diverticulum out growth from the ventral wall of the forgut= rum&pigs tracheal bronchus devlps on right side endoderm
intial alveolisolid cords cells cubeodal
expanded alveolihollow lined via thin alveolar epi-surfactant producing
inspiration inducespul vaso dilation, ductus arterious constriction
fluid lung removaldirect flow to pharny and oral cavity; evaporation into respired air; absorption into pulmonary lymphatics
pleuropericardial foldmesenchymal tissue surrounding each common cardinal vein
pleuropericordial septummedially grown and fused pleuropericardial fold=will become pericardium
tracheal hypoplasia/treacheal stenosisdefect in cartilage morphogensis=bulldogs


Question Answer
pulmonary hypoplasialess development of the lungs
respiratory distress systemtoo little surfactant production=barker foal syndrome
cranial urogenitalintermediate mesoderm
middle urogenital arises from?endoderm
caudal most urogentialectoderm
nephrogenic ridge is made of?intermediate mesoderm =pronephros,mesonephros,metanephros
pronephros7-8 pairs pronephric tubules from cranial end of nephrogenic ridge= tubules not functional in mamals and regress
prononephric ductjoining of the pronephric tubules= persists and becomes mesonephric duct
mesonephros location and correlations?thoracic and lumbar of the neprogenic ridges- size has placental correlation=smallest;carnvrs lartgest;pigs middle;sheep
mesonephric tubulesbetter devlpd than pronephric tubules=function in early embnryonic life= 1 end becms bowmns caps other becms mesonephric duct(fetal) most regress, duct remains
mesonephric ductDEV vescular gland, Epididymis, and Ductus deferens
metanephrospermanent and functional kidney in mammals and develops from the caudal most nephrogenic ridge
uteritic bud/metanephros diverticulumfrom caudal part of the mesonephric duct-bcms collecting tubules, major and minor calyces, renal pelvis and ureter aka collecting system


Question Answer
metonephric capbowmans capsl, PCT, loop of henle, DCT aka excretory system
bladder fromproximal allantois and vescular urogential sinus
lower part of the mesonephric ductdeferent duct
ureturmetanephric duct
renal agenesisabsence of 1 or both kidney
horse-shoe kidney2 kidney fuse
cystic kidneynephron and C.T. dont fuse
ectopic ureterurutre opens into urethra
genital ridge (gonadol ridge)develops ventro-medial spect of the mesonephros = lined coelomicepi overlaying condensed mesenchyme
primordial germ cells induce formation of?genital ridge
persisting mesonephric (wolffian) ductlateral to genital ridge developed into mode duel system
paroimesonephric(mullerioin) ductdorsoloteroll to mesonephric duct = developed into female duct system
indifferent stage2wolffioin & 2 mullerian ducts.
testis cordseminiferous tubules (peripheral part) rete testis
primordial germ cellgonocytes=spermatogonia
sertoli & laydig arise from ? mesenchyme
efferent ductules?persisting mesonephric tubules
tongue rootendoderm
follicles arise from?gonadoil cords = mesenchymal origin
striaghted muscles of the tongueoccipital somites


Question Answer
Gebernaculum testis<u>mesenchymal</u> condensation extends from gonad to the scrotal swelling--male=ligament of the testis and bladder, female=medial ligament of the uturus
mesonephric duct becomes ?vesicular gland, epididymis and ductus deference
paromesonephric duct regress except for?Uterus Masculinus in bulls
hydrocoeleaccumulation of the fluid within the two layers of tunica vaginalis
mesonephric tubulesmales = efferent ductules Female = vestigeal structures
mesonephric ductintermediate mesoderm > DEV male =Epididymis,ductus deferens, Vesicular gland
paraimesonephric duct (germ layer)intermediate mesoderm: vestigial structures, uterus molsculinus > female = Uterine tube, uterus and Vagina (partly)
urogenital sinus vesicle partmale & female bladder
urogenital sinus pelvicpart (germ layer)endoderm: male = pelvic urethra Prostate female = urethra I Vagina (caudal)
Urogenital sinus Phallic partendoderm male=peile urthra & bulbourethral gland, female=vestibule&vestibular gland
Urachus (derm layer)endoderm- ligament of the bladder
urogenital fold (germ layer)endoderm-male=urethral fold of the penile urethra--female=labia minora
genital swellingectoderm-male=scrotum female=labia
genital tuberclemale=penis female=clitoris
macrophages are alwaysmesoderm!
nervous systemderivered from Ectoderm
notochord induces formation of?neural plate-thicking of the ectoderm that is bound laterally by the neural folds
neural tubetube that is formed from the neural plate folding
rostral and caudal neuroporeopeningst either end of the neural tube
neural crestdetachment from the neural tube, form along the sides of the neural tube
neural crest cells become ?ganglia, neurolemmal cells/schwann cells, mesenchymal cells of the head, chromaffin cells of the adrenal medualla, melanoblasts, pia and arachnoid mater
neural tube craniallybrain
neural tube caudallyspinal cord
neuroepitheliumform neuroblasts and gliablasts(support cells) and ependyma(lining of central canal
cell bodies of the neuroblastmantle zone =grey matter
axons and dendrites of the neuroblastsmarginal zone =white matter (note the spelling!)
gliablasts become?astorcytes and oligodendrocytes
microglia is of what originmesodermal
sulcus limitans groovein the lateral wall of the neural tube=devieds the nerual tube into dorsal alar plate and ventral basil
somites become?vertebral column
alar plate is?sensory become the dorsal horn
basal plate is?motor becomes the ventral horn
innervation of the eyeoptic 2, 3 occulomotor, 4 trochlear, 5 trigeminal, 6 abdunctants


Question Answer
cavity of the neural tube becomescentral canal
ependymalining of the central canal from neroepithelium
conus medullariscaudal end of the spinal cord
cauda equinamost caudal spinal nerves that pass obliquely out of the conus medullaris
cervical flexurebetween the developing brain and spinal cord
Cranial flexure is also calledmidbrain flexure
Name the primary vesicles of the brain? Prosencephalon mesencephalon, Rhombencephalons
Prosencephelon develops intotelencephalon, Diencephalons
TelencephalonCN 1(olphactory) olphactory bulb and cerbrial hemisphere, lateral ventricle
DiencephalonCN2(optic) epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus
MesencephalonCN3(occulomotor) CN4(trochlear) Corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles,cerebral aquaduct
Rhombencephelonmetencephalon and myelencephalonalso point flexure between the two
MetencephalonCN5(trigeminal) Pons and Cerebellum
MylencephalonCR6,7,8,9,10,11,12 Medulla oblongata, fourth ventricle
Piamater and arachnoid arise fromneural crest cells
Duramater arise frommesoderm
spinal bifitacausal neuropore fails to fuse
myeloschisiscleft in the spinal cord-nerual tube fails to fuse
cerebellar hypoplasiacaused by panleucopenia virus-loss of cerebellum development
hydrocephalusexcess of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain
anecephaluswhen the rostral neuropore fails to fuse