Elements of Fiction English 11

swimmingprincess's version from 2016-09-29 04:06


Question Answer
Antecedent Actionimportant action which takes place before the story begins
Exposition/Introductionimportant background information given by the author at the beginning of the story in order to further the plot, conflict, setting and characterization
evidential Incidentan action or event that sets a conflict of opposing forces into motion
Rising Actionthe building of tension between opposing forces in a story
Climaxthe moment of highest intensity in a story It is usually the turning point in the story and in the fortunes of the portagonist
Denouement or Falling Actionthe final resolution of the conflicts in a story
Dilemmaa situation in which a character must make a different decision between two equally undesirable alternatives. This technique helps create suspense
Suspensethe feelings of anxiety and uncertainty in a reader created by the author about the outcome of events in a storuy
Foreshadowing a hint of something that may happen later in the story
Flashbacka scene inserted into the story showing events which happened at a n earlier time
Symbolsomething that stands for or represents something else of greater importance
Setting the time or place in which a story occurs. It may be directionally stand, or merely implied
Geographical Locationi.e. Burnaby North Secondary
Social Settingincludes occupations beliefs, financial status, etc. of the characters
Timeyears, season, time or day
Mood or Atmospherethe emotional colouring of a story (haunting, peaceful, exciting)
Conflicta struggle between two opposing forces in a story. Most plot development involves conflict. This is also a good place to start to look for theme
External Conflictone person against another person or thing. External conflict an be physical, emotional or psychological
Person vs. Person or Societyi.e. Jenny vs. Alice
Person vs. Nature or Environmenti.e. surviving a storm
Person vs. Supernaturali.e. person vs. superhero ??
Internal Conflictone person against him/herself, usually emotionally or physically
Person vs. Selfi.e. victims of anorexia
ThemeA statement expressing the main idea of story which often comments on life in general or human behaviour. Unlike morals, themes do not advise or instruct the reader. Theme: People often find it difficult to adjust to change. Moral: People need to adjust to change to avoid stress.
Point of Viewthis refers to who tells the story and how the story is told
Omniscient Point of Viewthe thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story are related and the narrator is free to go anywhere or see anything (He/She)
Limited Omniscient Point of View the reader observes the story from the outside, through the senses and thoughts of a single character. What is known, seen, thought, or judged is all from a single character's perspective (He/She)
Objective Point of Viewthe story is told by an invisible narrator, who simple roams like a camera recording what is seen and heard, without commenting upon them (He/She)
First Person this point of view occurs when one of the characters tells the story and the events are shown form his or her eyes only (I)
Protagonistalso known as the main character in a story who carries the action
Antagonistsomeone/thing that is the opposition to or in strong conflict with the protagonist
Secondary or minor charactersthose who play very small supporting roles in a story
Direct Presentationwhat the character says about him/herself and why other characters say about him/her
Indirect Presentationreveals information to the reader about the character by what he she says and does (his or her actions)
Round charactera realistic character with several dimensions
Flat characterusually a minor character with only one apparent quality
Dynamic charactera character who undergoes a significant and lasting change as a result to an experience that takes place in the story
Static charactera character that does no change in the course of the story
Stereotyoea conventional image held about a certain group (a nurturing mother)
Motivationwhat causes a character to behave a certain way
Ironyinvolves a discrepancy or an incongruity. It is a contrast between what is expected to happen and what happens, or between what a person says and what he/she really means
Situational Ironythe discrepancy between appearance and reality, between expectation and fulfilment, or between what is appropriate and what would seem appropriate. Eg. A student studies for a test to days but sleeps in late for the test and fails
Verbal Ironythe opposite is said from what is intended. E.g. "Oh goody, more homework!"
Dramatic Ironywhen the audience/reader knows something that the character does not. Eg. a man is eager to go home and see his wife, but the reader knows that she is having an affair
Allusiona passing reference, either direct or indirect, to historical or fictional characters, places or events that the author assumes the reader will know
Complicationan incident in a story that beings or introduces a conflict
Conflictthe struggle between opposing forces in a story Helps to drive the plot
Contrast (juxtaposition)the overlap or missing of situations, characters, settings, moods, or points of view in order to clarify meaning, purpose or character or to enhance certain mods. Juxtaposition involves placing dramatic contrasts side by side
Dialecta form os speech characteristic of a geographic region, social class, or a particular people
Dialogueconversation of two or more people in stories. Dialogue is used to move the action forward, reveal the qualities of the characters and give a sense of reality to the story
Dictionchoice or words used by author
Epiphanya moment of student profound revelation and wonder experienced by the protagonist in a story
Foreshadowinghints or clues even by the author to suggest events that will occur later in the story. Foreshadowing creates suspense and prepares the reader for what happens next
Imagerydetails and descriptions which sue the senses of taste, smell, hearing, touch and sight to create clear "pictures in words" for a reader
Moralthe lesson of a story, can be stated directly or indirectly
Motivationthe circumstances, reasons or feelings that cause a character to do what he or she does in a story. Motivation must be realistic for the character to be believable
Realismthe "true to life" aspect of stories which are about everyday life and every day people
Satirethe use of irony to ridicules an idea, person or thing, often with the goal of bringing about change. Usually mocks aspects of the human nature.
Stream of consciousnessa style of writing in which the thoughts and feelings of a character are written in a natural way, without logic or interruption
Surrealisma technique used by the author to cause a character, and even the reader, to experience situations in a story which seem bizarre, fantastic or removed from reality
Suspensefeelings of uncertainty experience by the reader of a story about its outcome or about the fate of a protagonist of a story
Stylethe individual way in which an author expresses his or her story. An author's style is evident in the images, sentences and diction or his or her writing
Symbolismthe use of objects, actions or character in stories to represent ideas or abstract concepts. Eg. a rose can signify not only the flower itself, but also beauty, love or purity.
Tonethe authors apparent attitude towards his or her subject, characters, and readers. Eg. friendly, condescending, teasing, etc.
Verisimilitudethe very lifelike quality of stories as revealed through plot, setting, conflict and characterization
Vicarious experiencethe feeling a reader gets when becoming emotionally and imaginatively involved in a story, particularly if he or she identifies with the character an this experiences and can picture being in the centre of the action
Fictiona narrative that is not based n fact but is created from an author's imagination
Escape fictiona type of story which enables the reader to escape the reality and problems of daily life. It allows the reader to live vicariously through the lives of the character. has a lively and entertaining plot, but flat, stereotyped characters
Fantasya highly exaggerated or unlikely story, a story which would probably not be found in real life
Interpretive fictiona story which has round, well developed characters and is written with the intention of casing the reader to think about its deep meaning. Usually much more complex in structure than escape fiction and makes much use of symbolism. Tires to reveal or explore various aspects of life, human nature, etc.
Science Fictionimaginative writing that speculates about the effects of technology, science and the future of human beings. Can be escapist or interpretive

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