olanjones's version from 2016-02-04 15:40

Section 1

Question Answer
SodiumPrimary EC cation, regulates osmotic forces
Sodiumneuromuscular irritability, acid-base balance, cellular chemical reactions, membrane transport
Sodium (brain)Normal range = 135-145 mEq/L
PotassiumMajor IC cation, regulate ICF osmolarity
Potassiumcontrols cell resting potential, needed for Na+/K+ pump, exchanged for H+ to buffer pH changes in blood
Potassium (heart)Normal range = 3.5-5.0 mEq/L, is essential for transmission/conduction of nerve impulses, normal cardiac rhythms, and skeletal/smooth muscle contraction
Calcium99% is located in the bone, bone strength and stability, has inverse relationship with phosphate
Calciummembrane potentials/excitability, contraction of all muscle types, second messenger for many hormones/neurotransmitter pathways
CalciumNormal range = 8.5-10.5 mg/dL, ESSENTIAL part of the clotting cascade

Section 2

Question Answer
MagnesiumIC cation, blocks K+ exit from cells
Magnesiumsmooth muscle relaxant, interferes with release of catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine), interferes with acetylcholine (neuromuscular junction)
MagnesiumNormal range = 1.5-2.1 mg/dL
PhosphateFound mostly in bone, has inverse relationship with calcium
Phosphateused in ATP and bone formation, glucose, fat, and protein metabolism
PhosphateNormal range = 2.5-4.5 mg/dL

Section 3

Question Answer
HyponatremiaNa+ below 135 mEq/L. confusion, headache, depressed reflexes, seizures, muscle cramps, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Depletional Hyponatremia causesnot taking Na+ in or losing Na+ too fast, aldosterone failure, salt-wasting renal disease, diarrhea, GI suction, diuretics (hypovolemic)
Dilutional Hyponatremia causesSIADH or oliguric kidney failure will dilute solutes, excessive sweating followed by only water (vs electrolyte) replacement (hypervolemia)
HypernatremiaAbove 145 mEq/L. intracellular dehydration, dry mucus membranes, restlessness, convulsions, thirst, fever, muscle twitching,
Hypernatremia Na+ intake causes increased aldosterone, enteral feeding (g-tube), will lead to hypervolemic symptoms
Hypernatremia water deficit causesDI, diarrhea, decreased thirst response, will lead to hypovolemic symptoms
Sodium imbalance correctionsshould be done slowly to avoid cerebral edema
Sodium maintenanceAldosterone sodium sparing, Natriuretic peptides stimulate kidney to excrete, ADH

Section 4

Question Answer
Hypokalemia *think alkalosisK+ below 3.5 mEq/L, causes- decrease intake, GI suctioning, chronic diuretics, increased aldosterone, increased intake of K+ into cell
Hypokalemia manifestationsdecreased neuromusclar excitability, muscle weakness, parethesia, decreased motility, cardiac arrhythmia (prominent U wave), cardiac arrest
Hypokalemia correctionsshould be increased slowly to avoid cardiac arrest
Hyperkalemia *think acidosisK+ above 5.0 mEq/L, (is rare because efficient renal excretion) of causes- kidney failure, crush injury, increased salt substitute use, DKA
Hyperkalemia manifestationincreased neuromusclar excitability, GI cramps/diarrhea, flaccid paralysis, prolonged depolarization (results in wide QRS, and peaked T wave in EKG)
Potassium maintenanceAldosterone potassium wasting, insulin increases intracellular uptake, catecholamines

Section 5

Question Answer
Hypocalcemiabelow 8.5 mg/dL, increased neuromusclar excitability (tingling, spasms - Trousseau/Chovstek's signs, intestinal cramp), prolonged QT interval on EKG, convulsion/tetany
Hypocalcemia causesinadequate absorption, decreased PTH or Vitamin D, nutritional deficit
Hypercalcemiaabove 10.5 mg/dL, decreased neuromuscular excitability (muscle weakness, fatigue), kidney stones, constipation, dysrhythmia, bone pain
Hypercalcemia causeshyperparathyroidism, bone metastases, excess Vitamin D, tumors that produce PTH
Calcium maintenancePTH stimulates osteoclasts, calcitonin stimulates osteoblasts

Section 6

Question Answer
Hypomagnesemiabelow 1.5 mg/dL, neuromuscular irritably, tetany, convulsions
Hypomagnesemia causesAlcoholism, malnutrition, GI suctioning
Hypermagnesemiaabove 2.1 mg/dL, loss of deep tendon reflexes, decrease in muscle tone, nausea/vomiting, hypotension
Hypermagnesemia causesrenal failure is #1 cause, excessive intake (antacids), adrenal insufficiency
Magnesium maintenancerenal reabsorption is stimulated by PTH

Section 7

Question Answer
Hypophosphatemiabelow 2.5 mg/dL, tremors, paresthesias, impaired RBC metabolism, impaired WBC and platelets
Hypophosphatemia causeschronic alcoholism, malabsorption, antacid use, respiratory alkalosis
Hyperphosphatemiaabove 4.5 mg/dL, tetany, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias
Hyperphosphatemia causesrenal failure, long-term laxative/enema use, hypoparathyroidism
Phosphorus maintenancePTH releases from bone, increases intestinal absorption, decreases renal reabsorbtion (excreted in urine)

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