Electrolytes Used in Acid-Base Therapy

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-18 01:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Metabolic Acidosis– Sodium Bicarbonate – Sodium Lactate – Sodium Acetate – Sodium Citrate (occasional)
Metabolic Alkalosis– Ammonium Salts

Section 2

Question Answer
Sodium AcetateCH3COONa.3H2O
Sodium Acetate • Restores blood pH and plasma bicarbonate in patients suffering from metabolic acidosis of acute cholera. • For uremic acidosis • Used as a diuretic, urinary alkalizer, and systemic antacid or alkalizer.
Sodium AcetateGood catalyst for acetylation reactions in organic chemistry
Sodium Acetate• When absorbed, it is easily oxidized in the tissues to sodium bicarbonate: CH3COONa + 4O  NaHCO3 + H2O + CO2 • Diuretic (in the treatment of cystitis and diseases of the urinary tract associated with highly acid urine).
Potassium AcetateCH3COOK
Potassium Acetate• Diuretic and Urinary Alkalizer • Can also act as antacid • All precautions for KCl apply to potassium acetate • Usual dose: 1g
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)– Sodium acid carbonate; sodium hydrogen carbonate; baking soda; bicarbonate of soda
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)• When heated, the salt loses water and carbon dioxide into the normal carbonate:When it reacts with acid, it always liberates gas. – Effervescent Tablets
– PhenolphthaleinDistinguishing Test between HCO3- and CO32-?
Sodium Bicarbonate• Used principally for its acid-neutralizing properties – Combats gastric hyperacidity – Combats systemic acidosis • Buffer System • Has been shown to interfere with tetracycline absorption.
Sodium Bicarbonate• Treatment of methyl alcohol poisoning • Increases the alkali reserve of the blood and to replace sodium ion in case of clinical dehydration.
Sodium Biphosphate• NaH2PO4.H2O • Sodium dihydrogen phosphate,Sodium acid phosphate
Sodium Biphosphate• Urinary acidifier • Laxative and cholagogue • Marketed as Betaphos
Potassium BicarbonateKHCO3
Potassium Bicarbonate• Officially classified as electrolyte replenisher • Component of oral effervescent potassium replacement solutions (K-lyte®) • Used as an antacid for people who must restrict their sodium intake – AE: hyperpotassemia
Potassium Bicarbonate• Antacid and diuretic • Carbonating agent in the preparation of Magnesium Citrate Solution • Utilized in the preparation of Potassium Arsenite Solution.
Sodium Citrate• Na3C6H5O7.2H2O
Sodium Citrate• Anticoagulant • Citrate – rapidly metabolized to CO2 and H2O – Used in chronic acidosis to restore bicarbonate reserve. • Has a diuretic effect
Sodium Citrate• Buffer effect • SystemicAlkalizer • Sequestering agent – Benedict’s Solution • Has diuretic effect
Potassium Citrate• K3C6H5O7.H2O
Potassium Citrate• SystemicAlkalizer • Component of Potassium Triplex® – Along with Potassium Acetate and Bicarbonate • Diuretic, expectorant, and diaphoretic • Slightly laxative
Ammonium ChlorideNH4Cl
Ammonium ChlorideOther name: – Ammonium muriate – Sal Ammoniac – Salmiac
Ammonium ChloridePharmacological Categories: – Acid-base equilibrium of the body – Diuretic – urinary and systemic acidifier – Expectorant