Electrolytes Part 1

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-17 22:41

Section 1

Question Answer
ChlorideMaintains: – proper hydration – osmotic pressure – normal cation-anion balance in the vascular and interstitial fluid compartment.
Phosphate (HPO42-)–  Hexoses are metabolized as phosphate esters –  Buffer system (HPO42-/H2PO4-) –  ATP –  Calcium metabolism –  Bone and tooth development
Sodium Metaphosphate (NaPO3)-Used as water softening agents
Bicarbonate-Most important buffer system (along with carbonic acid)
SodiumFunctions -Normal hydration -Osmotic pressure
Potassium Has diuretic action • Low or high level of K is dangerous;• Active Transport Mechanism
Calcium• Indispensable cation relating to the functional integrity of the voluntary and ANS • As a factor in proper cardiac function • As a factor in blood coagulation • As the structural basis of the skeleton and like tissue.
MagnesiumEssential component of the following: –enzymes, protein synthesis -Neuromuscular system -Used pharmacologically for its muscle depressant effect

Section 2

Question Answer
Phosphate (HPO42-)Principal anion of the intracellular fluid compartment
Sodium Metaphosphate (NaPO3)Graham’s Salt
Bicarbonate2nd most prevalent anion in the extracellular fluid compartment
SodiumPrincipal cation in the extracellular fluid compartment
PotassiumMajor intracellular action
Calcium99% found in bones 1%- Extracellular fluid
Magnesium-2nd most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid -50% of total body Mg is combined with Ca and P in bone.

Section 3

Question Answer
Hypochloremia – Salt-losing nephritis – Metabolic acidosis (DM, renal failure) – Prolonged vomiting with loss of Cl- as HCl.
Hyperchloremia – Dehydration – Decreased renal blood flow found in CHF – Severe renal damage – Excessive chloride intake
Hyperphosphatemia– May be found in hypervitaminosis D – Renal failure Hypoparathyroidism – Can lead to kidney stone (phosphatic urinary calculi)
• Hypophosphatemia– Vitamin D deficiency (rickets) Hyperparathyroidism - Lack of phosphate absorption – Long-term use of antacid therapy – Problem in erythrocyte glucose metabolism
• Hyponatremia (low serum level of Na) -Extreme urine loss -Metabolic acidosis -Addison’s disease, with decreased excretion of antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone -Diarrhea and vomiting -Kidney damage
Hypernatremia (increased serum level of Na) – Hyperadrenalism (Cushing’s syndrome), with increased aldosterone production – Severe dehydration – Certain types of brain injury – Excess treatment with sodium salts
• Hypokalemia (Hypopotassemia) -Myocardial function, flaccid and feeble muscles -Low BP -Caused by vomiting, diarrhea, burns, hemorrhages, diabetic coma, IV infusion of solutions lacking K (a dilution effect) -Overuse of thiazide diuretics -Alkalosis
• Hyperkalemia (Hyperpotassemia) – Occurs in kidney damage – Acidosis – Can cause cessation of heart beat (potassium arrest).
Hypocalcemia:– renal failure, hypovitaminosis D, hypoparathyroidism, hypersecretion of calcitonin, Malabsorption, acute hyperphosphatemia
Hypercalcemia:– Hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D; bone neoplastic diseases
Hypomagnesemia:– Malnourishment (primary cause) – Pregnancy
Hypermagnesemia:– Excessive ingestion of Mg-containing antacids – Reduced renal function

Section 4

Question Answer
Chloride-Removed from the blood by glomerular filtration and reabsorbed in kidney tubules.
Phosphate (HPO42-)-Usually correlates with serum calcium values • PO43- and HPO42- – poorly absorbed • H2PO4- – absorbed from the intestine
BicarbonateLow level – Metabolic acidosis High level – Metabolic alkalosis
Sodium-Excreted by the kidneys (regulator) -RAAS (Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system)- is a hormone system that is involved in the regulation of the plasma sodium concentration and arterial blood pressure. -Edema (swelling) of ankles and feet
Calcium Homeostasis:-secreted by the thyroid gland inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts, thus decreasing blood calcium levels.
Calcitonin(thyrocalcitonin):-Secreted by the C cells in the thyroid as a response to high Ca2+ levels in the blood. -Lowers Ca2+ in blood. -Promotes depositions of Ca2+ into bones
PTH (parathormone):-Secreted by the chief cells in the parathyroid as a response to low Ca2+ levels in the blood. -Increase Ca2+ in blood -Increase Ca2+ absorption in the intestine via activation of Vit. D production.