EH Q Land Degradation

rfwhite42's version from 2015-09-28 14:05


Question Answer
What is Land?Land is the terrestrial bio-productive system that comprises soil, vegetation, other living things, and the ecological and hydrological processes that operate within that system. Ecological and Hydrological processes in same system!
Why is land important?Land is a major environmental system that supports life by providing a range of ecosystem services.
What are ecosystem services?Services provided by the environment that benefit humans
What are the 3 categories of ecosystem services?Provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services
What are provisioning services?Products obtained from ecocystems. Includes Food, freshwater, feulwood, fiber, bichemicals, genetic resources
What are regulating services?Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes. Climate regulation, disease regulation, water regulation, water purification, pollination
What are cultural services?Non-material benefits obtained from ecosystems. Spiritual and religious, recreation and ecotourism, aesthetic, inspirational, educational, sense of place, cultural heritage
Key message #1Productive land and soil are critical natural capital assets essential for ag productivity, conserving biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water purification and storage, biofeuls, climate protection and regulation, and natural heritage (UNCCD, 2013)
Key message #2For communities that rely heavily on land as thair MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD, particularly rural poor, human health and wellbeing are completely dependent upon and intricately linked to the health and productivity of the land.
What is land degredation?Natural or human induced reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem functions and services that support society and development (land unable to benefit humans the way it should, it's underperforming)
Desertificationthe process of land degradation in the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas (drylands) reflecting as a persistent reduction or loss of biological and economic productivity. This is an extreme case of land degredation
Droughta deficiency of precipitation that results in a water shortage. Occurs throughout the world including in the humid regions.
Drylands (what they are and why they matter)cover 40% of world's land area, support 2 billion people (90% in developed contries), 1 billion people rely directly on dryland ecosystem services for daily survival (rain-fed or irrigated farming or widespread pastoralism). found on all continents but mostly Africa and Asia
Key message #4there was no 3, this class is a joke. DLDD are challenges of a global dimension- they pose serious obstacles to sustainable development in all countries, especially for rural poor in developed countries
3 types/forms of land degradationPhysical, biological and chemical degradation
Physical degradation Soil erosion; water logging; mass movements; subsoil compacting; coastal erosion
Biological degradationreduction in the variety and quantity of biodiversity; decline in the nutritional value for livestock and wildlife, eutrophication
Chemical degradationnutrient and organic matter depletion, soil acidification; agrochemical toxicity build-up, pollution (solid and liquid waste)
Point source examplescity streets, rural homes, forestry, cropland, animal feedlot, suburban development.
Non-point source exampleRiver point sources all spill into
Drivers definitionIndirect causes of land degradation
pressures definitiondirect causes of land degradation
Drivers of land degradationInadequate policy and legislative framework, poor enforcement mechanisms, insecure land tenure, unsupportive land governance, socio-economic factors (poverty and afluence), low political will, climate variability and change, inadequate technical support to land users, high labor cost and overpopulation
Pressures of land degradationInappropriate land use practices(see another card for the examples) as well as natural and man-made hazards (bush fires, floods, tropical systems)
Inappropriate land use practices (these are pressures)Inadequate soil and water conservation (farming & construction activities), Poor soil enrichment practices (e.g. low utilization of organic matter), Inappropriate use of agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), Poor wastewater and solid waste management, High livestock carrying capacity, Low education of land use best practices among resource users, Indiscriminate deforestation
How much has highly degraded lands increased from 91 to 11?From 15% to 25%
is land degradation global? wha'ts most vulnerable?It is a worldwide phenomenon and the drylands are the most vulnerable
Where is 78% of total land being degraded from 81-03terrestrial ecosystems other than drylands
how much fertile soil was lost from world's croplands due to erosion in the last century?24 billion tons
Status and trends of land degradation from pie chartType 1 high degradation or highly degraded lands 25%, Type 2 moderate degeneration in slightly or moderately degenerated land 8%, Type 3 Stable land or slightly degradated 36%, Type 4 improving lands 10%, Bare areas 18% and water 2%
If current scenario of land degradation continues over the next 25 yearsit may reduce global food production …by as much as 12% resulting in world food prices as much as 30% higher for some commodities
Land degradation affects how many people world wide? Is it worse for some people?1.5 billion people around the world and more on poor, women and children.
Who's affected by 40% of land degradation?impoverished people. (degradation worse in impoverished areas)
Costs and impacts of land degradationEconomic loss of on-site productivity due to land degredation range between 3-5% of ag GDP or about USD 490 billion annually. Direct economic costs at the national and local levels vary widely
What are some impacts of Land degradationfood insecurity and hunger, increased risk of drought and water stress, biodiversity loss, enviromental induced migration, instability and crisis (threats to peace and security), Extreme poverty, increased emission of carbon, deforestation and ecosystem loss.
Costs of land degradation (10)ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL- Loss of soil/soil erosion, loss/depletion of soil nutrients, loss of income/livelihoods/revenue via ecotourism, food insecurity, siltation of water bodies (implications for marine productivity), loss of habitats and biodiversity (diversity of plants and animals), human health problems, increased vulnerability to natural hazards (drought, storms), human property safety issues, increased cost to fix the above problems.
How much of latin america and caribbean is affected by land degradation (%, people, and cost)28%, 125 million people, 4,800 million dolars.
What sectors contribute to land degradation?all sectors and groups of persons can cause it if good land use practices are not used.
How to reverse land degradation?sustainable land management, adoption of land use systems through appropriate management practices that enables land users to Maximize Economic and Social benefits from the land while maintaining or enhancing the ecological support functions of the land resources.
Sustainable land managementsupportive land use policy, legislative and enforcement frameworks, capacity building, governance mechanisms, public awareness and education, research and use of appropriate technology are central to sustainable land management.
Wise land use practicesorganic farming, soil and water conservation, water harvesting, integrated pest management, effective solid and liquid waste manatement (composting, wastewater treatment), reforestation and afforestation.
Benefits of a land degradation neutral worldFood security, less dorought and water stress, biodiversity conservation, avoiding forced migrations, bio energies, poverty eradication, more resiliant to climate change, avoided deforestation
MEAmultilateral environmental agreement. it's a legally binding agreement between 2 or more nations states that deal with some aspect of the environment.
UNCCDunited nations convention to combat desertifications (adopted June 17th 1994). one of 3 Rio conventions- also UNFCCC (united nations framework convention on climate change), CBC convention on biological diversity
What are the objectives of UNCCDCombat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and or desertification through effective action at all levels, supported by international corporation and partnership agreements, in a framework consistent with agenda 21.
Action programs of UNCCDIdentify factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. this is through National Action programs, mandate to align all NAPS to the 10-year strategic plan, synchronized approach to land degredation reduction globally. Also Participation of population and local communities and Partnerships & corporation at all levels of government communities, NGOs and landholders.
Land degradation neutrality goalNo net increase in degradation by 2030.