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Education in USSR

noorgal's version from 2018-06-14 20:05

Education under Lenin

Question Answer
Why were there differing views on education under Lenin?Lenin wanted education to build socialism and serve revolution, Lunacharsky wanted to liberate student
What were the initial problems with education under Lenin?Normally seen as upper class, method of education / collaborate with intellectuals?
What % of population was illiterate in 1914?68%
When were the unified labour schools?October 1918
What did the unified labour schools do?Free polytechnic education for all. Compulsory schooling for 8-17. banned religious influence and free medical +food
Why did unified labour schools fail?lack of resources from civil war = no free medical / food. No reliable system to train teachers
What was education like under NEP?financial cuts meant schools closed down. Fees for school = First 18 months, attendence halved
When were education fees abolished?1927
What % of kids were in education in 1928?60%
What % of middle class started and finished secondary school under NEP90% started, 25% finished
What % of working class started and finished secondary school under NEP40% started, 3% finished
What % secondary schoolers paid fees under NEP?97%
When was the decree on illiteracy?1919
What was literacy like in the red army under trotsky 1918-25?1918: 50% literate --> 1925: 100% literate
In 1920 what were the resources like?1 pencil per 60 students
What was likpuntyl?Lunacharsky's 6 week literacy course for illiteracy - not priority = ineffective

Education under Stalin

Question Answer
What % increase was there in literacy for metal workers union 1925-26?1925: 86% literacy, 1926: 96% literacy
What happened at the 16th party congress 1930 under Stalin?3 million komosol workers to educate peasants.
How did the 3 million komosol workers get on after the first year?First year, 40% attacked and poorly equipped, but successful, overall
What % increase in literacy following komosol workers in 1932-391932: 68% literate, 1939: 94% literate
What was the % difference in literacy between men and women?90% female, 97% male
Why was education under Stalin not as great, despite rapid increase in literacy?Obsessed with statistics, no focus on full educational development.
When was the Stakhanovite-esque example of teacher that achieved excellent grades?1936
When did Stalin set up history lessons to teach about national prideMay 1934
When were labour reserve schools?1940
How many youth trained in industry due to labour reserve schools ?1946-52: 4.2 million youth

Education under Khrushchev and Brezhnev

Question Answer
What were Khrushchev's 1956 reforms?Reintroduced polytechnic eduction for growing consumer industries = effective
When was the Education law?December 1959
What was Khrushchev's Education law?train in farms and factories, 11 year programs for school
Why were Khrushchev's reforms ineffective?Unpopular, only 65% schools compiled. Wanted academic not vocational education
What was the increase university students from 1953-1980?1953: 1.5 million students 1980: 5 million
When was Brezhnev's fundamental law on soviet education?1973
What did Brezhnev's fundamental law on soviet education entail?free school meals to poor and free textbooks
What was the increase in secondary school complete for 17 year olds from 1953-59?20% to 75%
What was the increase in teachers from 1953 to 1964?1.5 million teacher to 2.2 million teachers