EDIT WK7 Cell Bio

winniesmith's version from 2016-11-15 10:22

Section 1

Question Answer
What does the nucleus help distinguish?eukaryotic and procaryotic cells
What does the nuclear envelope do?separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm. Controls traffic of proteins and RNAs through nuclear pores and plays a critical role in regulating gene expression.
#Structure of the nuclear envelope?Two nuclear membranes, an underlying nuclear lamina, nuclear pore complexes. Outer membrane is continuous with the ER.
What does the lamina do?keeps the structure of the cell. fibrous mesh that provides structural support, consists of proteins called lamins(fibrous proteins).
#what do mutations in lamins do?Causes mutations in growth structures/proteins.
How are lamins coded for/lamina made?Mammals have 3 lamin genes which code for 7 proteins. 2 of these proteins interact to form a dimer, the alpha helical regions wind around each other to form a coiled coil. Lamin dimers associate with each other to form the lamina.
#How are lamins binded to the nucleus?#

Section 2

Question Answer
#Nuclear pore complexes made of?30 different pore proteins (nucleoporins)
How do molecules pass through nuclear pores?#passive and..
Structure of a nuclear pore?#More specific in nuclear membrane. 8 separate sub units.
What are nuclear localization signals?#Signals recognisd by nuclear receptors
what is the T antigen?a nuclear localization signal is a single stretch of AA.
what are bipartite signals?AA -two sections separated by other molecules.
#what are nuclear receptors called importins
#What proteins controls nuclear transport receptors?Ran, a GTP-binding proteins
#Process of protein import through a nuclear pore..

Section 3

Question Answer
What are export proteins?exportins
what are exportins and importins both called?Karyopherins- 'carry' stuff in and out'
What is ran-GTP required for?allow things to be exported and imported. 'signal' that allows things to leave/enter the nuclear pore. Controls the activity.
What does NF-kB stand forNuclear factor-Kaka Beta- a nuclear transcription factor (one factor which controls proteins moving).
What do phosphorlyation control?other transcription factors in the nucleus.
describe mRNAs transport.independent of karyopherins and Ran. Uses tRNAs