# Earth Science

version from 2016-08-18 17:46

## Section 1

Geocentric UniverseEarth was located at the center
Geocentric UniverseEverything int heavens moved in uniform circular motion
ParallaxPosition of an object appears to differ viewed from different positions
Aster PlanetesGreek word of Planet
First principleSomething that is held to be true and the result is true
ReasoningClassical philosophers relied on this
Parallaxchange or shift of stars
Westward to eastward/RetrogradePlanets move in this way according to Ptolemy
Rudolphine TableMathematical computation of planetary movement
Rudolphine Table100x more accurate the alfonsine table
(1) Law of Ellipses: The orbit of planets are ellipse, (2) Law of Equal Areas: A planet orbiting around the sun sweeps an equal space at an equal time, & (3) Law of HarmoniesLaws of Kepler
Semi-major axisHalf of the diameter of an ellipse
Eccentricity1/2 distance of 2 foci
AphelionPoint of orbit away from the sun
PerihilionPoint of orbit near the sun
Orbits become more ellipseWhat happens when focis are apart from each other?
Highly ellipseValue of eccentricity is closer or equal to 1
CircularValue of eccentricity is closer to 0
(1) The sun has spots, (2) Jupiter has four moons, (3) Moon is imperfect, (4) Different phases of Venus, (5) Rings of Saturn & (6) Milky way is made up of myriad starsGalileo's contributions
Sun SpotCooler region in the sun
Umbra & PenumbraTwo types of sun spots
PenumbraLighter sun spot
Io, Callisto, Europa, Ganymede4 moons of Jupiter
Law of Inertia & Law of InteractionIsaac Newton's Contributions
Lens maker in HollandInvented telescope
AlbedoReflection of light of planets coming from the sun
Aristotelian UniverseThe planet followed a small circle that slid around the a larger circle
EpicycleSmall circle
DeferentLarger circle
Alfonsine TableSame model with Aristotle but Earth is slightly not centered

## Section 2

PtolemyAllowed the speed of the planet to vary slightly
PtolemyHe weakened the principle of the geocentrism and uniform circular motion
PtolemyAccepted the Aristotelian Universe
PtolemyWas interested with different problem particular with motion of the planets
PtolemyCreated mathematical description of the motions he saw in the heavens
AristotleCoined the first principle with says that the Earth is the center of the universe
AristotleGeoncentrism
Platosaid that a sphere is a perfect shape
ErastothenesSaid that the Earth was round
ErastothenesFirst to measure the diameter of Earth
PtolemyComputed Planetary Motion
PtolemySaid that planets move in retrograde movement
PtolemyAttempted to explain the motion of planets mathematically by devising a circle
CopernicusHeliocentricism
Copernicus"Sun is the center of the universe"
CopernicusNoticed that the Earth rotates on its axis
BraheAdapted Aristotle's model where the Earth was at the center
BraheLast naked eye scientist
BraheAccepted the work of Copernicus
BraheDeveloped his own model in which the sun and moon, the earth while planets circle around the sun
BraheDiscovered Super Nova
KeplerAnalysis of Observation from Brahe made by Copernicus
KeplerDevised 3 laws of planetary motions