Earth Science (UNIVERSE)

baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-07-27 12:43

Section 1

Question Answer
13.7 to 13.8 billion years oldAge of Universe
4.5 to 4.6 billion years oldAge of Earth/Solar System
Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter & Dark EnergyComposition of Universe
4.6%Percentage of Baryonic Matter
24%Percentage of Dark Matter
71.4%Percentage of Dark Energy
Baryonic Matter"Ordinary Matter"
Baryonic MatterConsists of Protons, Electrons and Neutrons
Baryonic MatterMostly consist of H, He and Li
Dark MatterMatter that has gravity
Dark MatterDoes not emit sufficient light for us to detect it
Dark MatterCan be observed by its gravitational effect
Dark EnergyProperty of space
Dark EnergySource of antigravity
Gravitational Repulsive effectSource of antigravity in Dark Energy
Dark EnergyExplains flatness of universe & accelerated expansion
Big Crunch, Indefinite Expansion & Big RipFuture of Dark Energy
Big CrunchQuintessence in which dark energy reverses
Indefinite ExpansionCosmological Constant
Big RipQuintessence in which dark energy destabilizes
PlanetsNatural object massive enough for gravity to make it spherical
PlanetsNot massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion
PlanetsHas cleared of planetismals
Terrestrial & JovianTwo types of planets
Terrestrial PlanetInner; High Density
Terrestrial PlanetMade up of rocks or metals with hard surface
Terrestrial PlanetNo ring system
Jovian PlanetOuter; Low Density
Jovian PlanetLocated on the region where volatiles like water ammonia and methane begin to freeze
Oort CloudLocated outside the solar system
CometsCan be seen farther fromsun
CometsVaporized form of gas
CometsRocky icy materials
Dust Tail & Plasma Tail2 types of comet tails
MeteroidIn space
MeteorIn atmosphere
MeteoriteIn earth
Robert Burnham Jr.Devised a way to portray light years into astronomical unit
Light yearsThe distance light can travel in a year
Proxima CentauriSun's nearest neighbor
StarsGiant,luminous spheres of plasma
StarsBuilding blocks of galaxies
StarsBorn out of clouds of gas & dust in galaxies
ProtostarCore of a future star as thermonuclear reaction
SunSingle star
SunDoes not have enough mass to be a supernova
SunBurn up hydrogen
SunHydrogen are fused to make helium atoms by thermonuclear reactions
SunMassive main sequence of stars burn up their hydrogen faster than smaller stars
Black HoleGravity so strong that nothing can escape, not even light
Accretion Diska rotating disk of matter formed by accretion around a massive body (such as a black hole) under the influence of gravitation.
Mattermade by violent death of star
Type 1a Super Nova & Type 22 types of Supernova
Type 1a Super NovaBinary Stars System
Type 1a Super NovaAccumulation of much matter
Type 2End of stars single life
Type 2Run out of nuclear fuel
Disk Shape, Two planetary types, Planetary Rings & Large Satellite System, Space Debris, Common age of 4.5 B YearsCharacteristics of Solar System
ProtoplanetsSmall celestial objects that are the size of a moon
PlanetesimalsObjects formed from dust, rock and other materials
PlanetesimalsSmall celestial bodies formed during the creation of planets
Jovian WorldsMost effecient at capturing planetesimals which only served to increase their already large masses
Large protoplanets & Small planetesimalsSolar System is divided into
Moons & Sent to Oort CloudLeft over large bodies
EddiesCollection of dust and rock particles outside the sun
Doppler EffectIncrease/Decrease in frequency of sound, light & other waves
Red ShiftAway from each other
Blue shiftClose to each other

Section 2

Question Answer
Pan Gu and the egg of the worldChinese Origin Story
The Titans and the Gods of OlympusGreek Origin Story
The Titans and the Gods of OlympusTheogony and works and days by Hesiod
The Titans and the Gods of OlympusStory of the Titans and Pandora's box
GenesisJudeo-Christian Origin Story
GenesisFirst written book of Old Testament
The Popol VuhMayan Origin Story
The Popol VuhMeans council
Catastrophic HypothesesPlanets formed on the collision of the sun and another star
Evolutionary HypothesesPlanets formed naturally and gradually as sun is formed
Solar Nebular HypothesesProposed by Emmanuel Swedenborg, Immanuel Kant and Pierre-Simon Laplace
Solar Nebular HypothesesThe sun and its planets condensed out of swirling of cold, dark, interstellar clouds of gas & dust
Nebular HypothesesA cloud of gas and dust collapsed by gravity begins to spin faster because of angular momentum conservation
Protoplanet HypothesisHypothesis proposed by William Hunter McCrea in 1960
Protoplanet HypothesisA great cloud of gas and dust rotated slowly in space
Protoplanet HypothesisThe cloud shrank under the pull of its own gravitation or was made to collapse by the explosion of a passing star
Planetesimal HypothesisFirst suggested by Viktor Safronov
Planetesimal HypothesisThe planetary cores in the Nebula theory were small bodies that condensed out of nebula materials
Stellar Collision TheorySuggests that our planets, moons and sun all spun off from collision of stars
Steady State TheoryIn 1940 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold & Herman Bondi
Steady State TheoryMatter is continuously created at a rate that keeps the average density of Universe the same as it expands
Steady State TheoryDensity of matter is constant overtime
Steady State TheoryLed to tests and its eventual rejection w/ the discovery of the cosmic microwave background
Evolutionary TheoryDensity of matter decreases ovetime
Pulsating Universe TheoryAlso known as "Oscillating Universe Theory"
Pulsating Universe TheoryProposed by Richard Tolman
Pulsating Universe TheoryThe universe follows infinite self-sustaining cycles such as expanding and contrasting
Pulsating Universe TheoryCombination of Big Bang & Big Crunch
Pulsating Universe TheoryUniverse expands at a rapid rate w/ gravity and inertia
Pulsating Universe TheoryEvidence of Red Shift
Big Bang TheoryBroadly accepted theory for origin and evolution of our universe

Section 3

Question Answer
Time Zero13.8 Billion Years Ago
Time ZeroDon't know what happened
Time ZeroNatural laws can't be applied
Time ZeroUntil 10^-43s later, all matter and energy in the universe existed as hot, dense, tiny state
Inflation Size of a football
InflationSpace is expanding
Inflation Universe then underwent extremely rapid exponential inflation
Quark Era10^–32s
Quark EraHot dense environment
Quark EraConditions allowed existence of only quarks, gluons, hadrons and leptons

Section 4

Section 5