Earth Science EXAM

baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-10-03 20:27

Section 1

Question Answer
Mineralan organic naturally occurring solid that has a definite chemical composition an atomic structure
Igneous, Sedimentary & Metamorphic3 types of ROCKS
Rocks are naturally occurring combinations or coherent aggregates of minerals
ROCK CYCLEAll rocks on Earth are locked into a system of cycling and re-cycling known as the
Igneous rocksare ones which have solidified directly from a molten state, such as volcanic lava.
Sedimentary rocksare ones which have been remanufactured from previously existing rocks, usually from the products of chemical weathering or mechanical erosion, without melting.
Metamorphic rocksare ones which result from processing, by heat and pressure (but not melting), of previously existing sedimentary or igneous rocks.
Igneous rocksIt is made of interlocking crystals that show little or no alignment
Igneous rocksare “born of fire”.
Igneous rockshey were once molten and upon cooling, the magma (molten rock) crystallized into solid rock.
INTRUSIVE & EXTRUSIVE2 Types of igneous rocks
Intrusive RocksSlow cooling deep beneath the Earth’s surface allows crystals to grow to large size (1/8” or more)
Extrusive RocksRapid cooling near or at the Earth’s surface, produces many small crystals that are not readily seen by the unaided eye.
Extrusive RocksCooling may be so rapid that crystals do not have a chance to form and instead a glass is produced.
Extrusive Rockstype of igenous rock that has small or no crystals
Vesicular & GlassyExtrusive Rocks can divided into
Intrusive Rockstype of igenous rock that has large crystals
Obsidianvolcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a conchoidal fracture
Obsidiancan be used to produce a cutting edge that is thinner and sharper than the best surgical steel
Basalt Rockplagioclase and pyroxene minerals
Rhyolitepink or gray in color with grains so small that they are difficult to observe without a hand lens
Phenocrysts & Groundmass2 types of grain size
Phenocrystsare large crystals that formed beneath the surface
Groundmassare small crystals formed at the surface
Vesicular textureis a volcanic rock texture characterized by a rock being pitted with many cavities (known as vesicles) at its surface and inside
PegmatiteComposed of crystals that are at least one centimeter in diameter
BasaltEarth's oceanic crust is made up of
Gabbromost abundant rock in the deep oceanic crust
Basaltonly a thin surface veneer of oceanic crust is...
Coarser-grained gabbroThe deeper rocks of the oceanic crust are generally...
Pyroxine and OlivineBasalt and Gabbro consist mostly of
Mafic rocksConsist largely of magnesium and iron silicates
Felsic rocksconsist mostly of Feldspar, Quartz, and Amphibole
LONGER, LARGERThe _______ the cooling time, the ________ the crystal size
Limestone is mostly Calcite (CaCO3 ) produced by chemical weathering of Feldspar and other silicate minerals.
Sandstone and Shaleare produced from sand (mostly quartz) and clay minerals (such as kaolinite), which result from mechanical and chemical weathering of igneous rocks.
Sediment sizeClastic sedimentary rocks are mostly classified according to...
Crystalline Sedimentary rocksare formed from evaporation or precipitation of minerals in water
Bioclastic Sedimentary rocksare formed from the compaction and cementation of organic matter
Clastic texturegrains or clasts do not interlock but rather are piled together and cemented.
Clastic texturegenerally porous and not very dense
Bioclastic textureThe texture is similar to clastic texture except that all of the clasts or grains are fossils
Crystalline textureare typically formed from one mineral throughout the entire rock
Metamorphic rockshave changed (meta) their form (morphic). Under the influence of heat, pressure and fluids, pre-existing rocks are modified in form and even in internal atomic structure to produce new rocks stable at the new conditions
Foliated & Non-foliated 2 types of metamorphic rocks
Foliated Metamorphic rocks that exhibit parallel alignments of minerals
Foliated In these rocks, the mineral all line up perpendicular to the exerted pressure
Non-foliated Metamorphic rocks composed of minerals that are not elongated or flat
Non-foliated do not exhibit parallel alignments
Mineral alignment & Banding2 types of Foliation
Mineral alignment Minerals line up as a result of intense pressure
BandingUnder even greater pressure, minerals separate into light and dark strips called bands
Contact metamorphism Where are whiskers found?
BandingKey characteristic of a metamorphic rock
SHALEthe most common sedimentary rock

Section 2

Question Answer
(1) Mineral Resources, (2) Energy Resources, (3) Biological Resources, (4) Air, (5) Water, (6) Sunlight, (7) SoilWhat are the Earth’s Natural Resources?
Renewable & Non renewableResources are either:
Renewable Resources can be replaced by nature at a rate close to the rate at which they are used.
Nonrenewable ResourcesResources that exist in a fixed amount
Nonrenewable Resourcesare renewed very slowly or not at all.
Mineral ResourceThe known deposits of a mineral in ores that are worth mining
Mineral Resourcevolume of rock enriched in one or more useful materials
Mineral Depositmineral occurrence of sufficient size and grade or concentration to enable extraction under the most favorable conditions
Ore Depositmineral deposit that has been tested and known to be economically profitable to mine.
Metallic mineral deposits & Non-metallic resources2 Types of Mineral Resources
Metallic mineral deposits a product obtained when the mineral was melted and has have bright and metallic luster.
Abundant Metals, Scarce Metals, PBTTypes of Metals
Abundant Metalsconcentration >0.1% in the earth’s crust
Scarce Metals:<0.01% in the crust
Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.Meaning of PBT
Non-metallic resourcesDo not have metallic luster.
Oresare rocks with high percentage of minerals
Ore Mineral & GangueRock is divided into two parts:
Ore Mineral The metallic element or valuable mineral part of the rock
GangueThe remaining part of the rock
Integral part of the earth's tectonic & Geochemical structureOre deposits occur where processes of nature formed them
(1) Involves the Rock Cycle, (2) Plate tectonicsOccurrence of Mineral Resources
(1) Magmatic Mineral Deposits, (2) Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits, (3) Sedimentary Mineral Deposits, (4) Placer Mineral Deposits, (5) Metamorphic DepositsTypes of Metallic Mineral Deposits
Magmatic DepositsAccumulations of metals associated with magma that forms igneous rocks
Magmatic DepositsAs minerals crystallize from a magma body, heavy minerals may sink to the bottom of the magma chamber and othersmay form on the sides of the magma chamber.
Layered & Disseminated2 types of magmatic deposits
Layered magmatic depositsWhen heavy minerals that crystallize early, settle and concentrate on the bottom of the magma chamber this results to...
Gravitational Settling When heavy minerals that crystallize early, settle and concentrate on the bottom of the magma chamber
Disseminated magmatic depositsA mineral deposit in which the metal is evenly distributed in generally low concentrations throughout large masses of igneous rock.
KimberlitesAre unique ultramafic igneous rocks
Hydrothermal Mineral DepositsMinerals are concentrated by hot fluids flowing through fractures and pore spaces in rocks.
Hydrothermal Mineral Depositsare produced when groundwater circulates down to depths and heats up, either by coming near a hot igneous body or by circulating to great depths which naturally heat the water
Hydrothermal Mineral Depositsform when mineral-rich superheated water shoots out of vents in solidified magma on the ocean floor.
Placer DepositsFormed when heavy metals are mechanically concentrated by flowing surface waters depositing high density minerals either in streams or along coastlines.
Placer DepositsWhen the velocity of the water slows, minerals with a higher density are deposited.
(1) Between ripple marks, (2) behind rock bars, (3) on the inside of meandering streams, (4) in holes on the bottom of a stream(4) Placer deposits occur in any area where current velocity is low, such as;
Placer Depositsoccur in any area where current velocity is low
Sedimentary Ore DepositsThese deposits often form as a result of chemical weathering in warm tropical climates that receive high temperatures and high amounts of rainfall which produces highly leached soils rich in both iron and aluminium.
Secondary enrichmentA process where an existing mineral deposit can be turned in to a more highly concentrated mineral deposit by weathering
Metamorphic Depositsare produced by contact metamorphism.
Skarnsare metal-rich deposits in Carbonate rocks that has undergone contact metamorphism.
Economic Mineralminerals that can be extracted, processed, and marketed at a profit.
High Grade Orehas high concentration of the mineral
Low Grade Oresmaller concentration
Single displacement reactiona reaction in which one element is substituted for another element in a compound

Section 3

Question Answer
Minea place where rocks and mineral of value are extracted
(1) Mineral Exploration, (2) Mining methods of extraction, (3) Processing/Milling, (4) ReclamationDifferent phases/stages of mining
ExplorationFirst phase of mining
Satellites, Airplanes & Helicopterscan be used to help find mineral deposits
Geiger counterRadioactive minerals can be found using this device
Surface MiningUtilized to extract ore minerals that are close to Earth's surface
(1) Open pit mining, (2) Quarrying, (3) Placer Mining, (4) Strip Mining(4) Types of Surface Mining
Open pit miningtunnel shaped hole in ground, with ramp spiraling down along sides which allow moderately deep ore to be reached
Open pit miningLeaves a large exposed hole on the surface that is prone to weathering and pollution
Fimiston Open PitAlso known as Super Pit
Fimiston Open PitLargest Open-Cut Gold Mine in Australia
Strip MiningBlast, scoop off rock overburden and then scoop out ore material. Fairly shallow
Strip MiningEconomics of strip mining depend on stripping ratio
Strip MiningLarge land area can be involved especially for coal & bauxite
Strip MinesMostly for coals where minerals occer in layers paralleling the surface
Strip Mines Waste rocks dumped back as spoil banks
Strip MinesNewer regulations require reclamation involving grading, restoring, and replanting
Strip MinesCan cause changes in topography & drainage
(1) The ore deposit is deep, (2) Ore body is steep, (3) Grade is high enough to exceed costsWhen do we mine underground?
ExtractionProcess of removing mineral resources from the Earth's crust
Crushers/grindersbreak up the ore to the size of small pebbles
Recovery methods/Milling methodsMeans of separation of ore mineral from waste material or mined rocks
Recovery methods/Milling methodsA great deal of bench testing using planned treatment processes avoids nasty surprises later
Heavy media separationIn which the crushed rocks are submerged in liquid where the heavier/denser minerals sinks thus are separated from lighter minerals.
Heavy media separationCommonly used to separate Chalcopyrite with Quartz
Magnetic SeparationUsed if the metal/mineral is magnetic
FlotationIn which Frothers are added to the solution to lower the surface tension of the water. The froth must be strong enough to support mineral
Concentration & FlotationCombination of water, chemicals, air & agitation make desired mineral particles float to the top of the bubbles
ElectrowinningStarter sheets are lowered into a solution
ElectrowinningAn electrical charge passes through causing copper ions to stick to the sheets
SmeltingRemoves the metal from the ore mineral by heating the ore with a flux, reducing the metal ion to its elemental form
Heap LeachingRemoves metal from the ore by reaction with a solution often using cyanide
SmeltingUses high heat and chemicals to remove base metals and impurities from concentrates
ABOVE 1064 degree celciusSmelting furnaces can reach temperature ___________
Cyanide Heap LeachingUsed for low-grade gold ore where the crushed rock is placed on a leach pile where cyanide solution is sprayed or dripped on top of the pile
(1) Acid Mining Drainage (AMD),(2) Heavy Metal Contamination, (3) Processing chemical pollution, (4) Erosion & Sedimentation(4) Harmful Environmental Effects of MINING
Acid Mine DrainageSulfide deposits react with groundwater to make acid
Heavy Metal PollutionCaused when such metals as arsenic, cobalt, copper, cadmium, etc contained in excavated rocks in an underground mine come in contact with water
Leachingis particularly accelerated in the low pH conditions
Processing Chemical PollutionOccurs when chemical agents spill, leak from the mine site into nearby water bodies
Reclamationis to complete & return the land to useful purpose
USA, UK, Australia & CanadaCountries that used wealth to jumpstart their economies

Section 4

Question Answer

Section 5

Question Answer