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DSM-5 Glossary of Technical Terms A-G

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blakeword's version from 2018-11-18 22:49

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Blunted AffectSignificant reduction in the intensity of emotional expression.
Flat AffectAbsence or near absence of any sign of affective expression.
Inappropriate AffectDiscordance between affective expression and the content of speech or ideation.
Labile AffectAbnormal variability in affect with repeated, rapid, and abrupt shifts in affective expression.
Restricted or Constricted AffectMild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression.
AffectA pattern of observable behaviors tht is the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state.
AgnosiaLoss of ability to recognize objects persons, sounds, shapes, or smells that occurs in the absence of either impairment of the specific sense or significant memory loss.
AlogiaAn impoverishment in thinking that is inferred from observing speech and language behavior.
AmnesiaAn inability to recall important autobiographical information that is inconsistent with ordinary forgetting.
AnhedoniaLack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life's experiences; deficits in the capacity to feel pleasure and take interest in things.
AnosognosiaA condition in which a person with an illness seems unaware of the existence of his or her illness.
AntagonismBehaviors that put an individual at odds with other people, such as an exaggerated sense of self-importance with a concomitant expectation of special treatment, as well as a callous antipathy toward others, encomppassing both unawareness of others' needs and feelings, and a readiness to use others in the service of self-enhancement.
Antidepressant Discontinuation SyndromeA set of symptoms that can occur after abrupt cessation, or marked reduction in dose, of an antidepressant medication that had been taken continuously for at least 1 month.
AnxietyThe apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune accompanied by a feeling of worry, distess, and/ or somatic symptoms of tension. The focus of anticipated danger may be internal or external.
AnxiousnessFeelings of nervousness or tenseness in reaction to diverse situations; frequent worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibiites; feeling fearful and apprehensive about uncertainty; expecting the worst to happen.
ArousalThe physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli.
AsocialityA reduced initiative for interacting with other people.
AttentionThe ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity.
Attention seekingEngaging in behavior designed to attract notice and to make oneself the focus of others' attention and admiration.
AutogynephiliaSexual arousal of anatal male associated with the idea or image of being a woman.
AvoidanceThe act of keeping away from stress-related circumstances; a tendency to circumvent cues, activities, and situations that remind the individual of a stressful event experienced.
AvolitionAn inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities. When severe enough to be considered pathological, avolition is pervasive and prevents the person from completing many different types of activities (e.g., work, intellectual pursuits, self-care).
BereavementThe state of having lost through death someone with whom one has had a close relationship. This state includes a range of grief and mourning responses.
CallousnessLack of concern for the feelings or problems of others; lack of guilt or remorse about the negative or harmful effects of one's actions on others.
CatalepsyPassive induction of a posture held against gravity.
CataplexyEpisodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collapsing, often occurring in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise.
Circadian rhythmsCyclical variations in physiological and biochemical function, level of sleep-wake activity, and emotional state.
Cognitive and Perceptual DysregulationOdd or unusual thought processes and experiences, including depersonalization, derealization, and dissociation; mixed sleep wake state experiences; and thought-control experiences.
ComaState of complete loss of consciousness.
CompulsionRepetitive behaviors (e.g., hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts( e.g., praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly. The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventiong or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive.
Conversion SymptomA loss of, or alteration in, voluntary motor or sensory functioning, with or without apparent impairment of consciousness. The symptom is not fully explained by a neurological or another medical condition or the direct effects of a subsante and is not intenionally produced or feigned.
DeceitfulnessDishonesty and fraudulence; misrepresentation of self; embellishment or fabrication when relating events.
Defense MechanismMechinisms that mediate the individual's reaction to the emotional conflicts and to external stressors.
DelusionA false belief based on incorrecte inference about external reaity that is firmly held despite what almost everyone elsebelives and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. The belief is not ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture.
Bizarre DelusionA delusion that involves a phenomenon that the person's culture would regard as physically impossible.
Delusional JealousyA delusion that one's sexual partner is unfaithful.
Erotomanic DelusionA delusion that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with the individual.
Grandiose DelusionA delusion of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person.
Mixed Type DelusionDelusions of more than one type in which no one theme predominates.
Delusion of being controlledA delusion in which feelings, implses, thoughts, or actions are experienced as being under the control of some external foce rather than being under one's own control.
Delusion of referenceA delusion in which events, objects, or other persons in one's immediate environment are seen as having a particular and unusual significance. These delusions are usually of a negative or pejorative nature but also may be grandiose in content.
Persecutory DelusionA delusion in which the cental theme is that one (or someone to whom one is close) is being attacked, harassed, cheated, persecuted, or conspired against.
Somatic DelusionA delusion whose main content pertains to the appearance or functioning of one's body.
Thought Broadcasting DelusionA delusion that one's thoughts are being broadcast out loud so that they can be perceived by others.
Thought Insertion DelusionA delusion that certain o one's thoughts are not one's own, but rather are inserted into one's mind.
DepersonalizationThe experience of feeling detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one's mental processes, body, or actions (e.g., feeling like one is in a dream; a sense of unreality of self, perceptual alterations; emotional and/ or physical numbing; temporal distortions; sense of unreality).
DepressivityFeelings of being intensely sad, miserable, and/ or hopeless. Some patients describe an absense of feelings and/or dysphoria; difficulty recovering from such moods; pessimism about the future; pervasive shame and/ or guil; feeling of inferior self-worth; and thoughts of suicide and suicidal behavior.
DerealizationThe experience of feeling detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one's surroundings (e.g., individuals or objects are experienced as unreal, dreamlike, foggy, lifeless, or visually distored.
DetachmentAvoidance of socioemotional experience, including both withdrawal from interpersonal interactions (ranging from casual, daily interactions to friendships and intimate relationships) and restricted affectivity, particularly limited hedonic capacity.
DisinhibitionOrientation toward immediate gratification, leading to impulsive behavior driven by current thoughts, feelings, and external stimuli, without regard for past learning or consideration of future consequences.
Disorder of sex developmentCondition of significant inborn somatic deviations of the reproductive tract from the norm and/or of discrepancies among the biological indicators of male and female.
DisorientationConfusion about the time of day, date, or season; where one is; or who one is.
DissociationThe splitting off of clusters of mental contents from conscious awareness. A mechanisms central to dissociative disorders.
DistractibilityDifficulty concentrating and focusing on tasks; attention is easily divertied by extraneous stimuli; difficulty maintaining goal-focused behavior, including both planning and completing tasks.
DysarthriaA disorder of speech sound production due to structural or motor impairment affecting the articulatory apparatus. Such disorders includ cleft palate, muscle disorders, cranial nerve disorders, and cerebral palsy affecting bulbar structures (i.e., lower and upper motor neuron disorders).
DyskinesiaDistortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscle activity.
Dysphoria (dysphoric mood)A condition in which a person experiences intense feelins of depression, discontent, and in some cases indifference to the world around them.
DyssomniasPrimary disorders of sleep or wakefulness characteriszed by insomnia or hypersomnia as the major presenting symptom.
DysthymiaPresence, while depressed, of two or more of the following: 1) poor appetite or overeating, 2) insomnia or hypersomnia, 3) low energy or fatigue, 4) low self-esteem, 5) poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, or 6) feelings of hopelessness.
DystoniaDisordered tonicity of muscles.
EccentricityOdd, unusual, or bizarre behavior, appearance, and/or speech having strange and unpredictable thoughts; saying unusual or inappropriate things.
EcholaliaThe pathological, parrotlike, and apparently senseless repetition (echoing) of a word or phrase just spoken by another person.
EchopraxiaMimicking the movements of another.
Emotional LabilityInstability of emotional experiences and mood; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or out of proportion to events and circumstances.
EmpathyComprehension and appreciation of others' experiences and motivations; tolerance of differing perspectives; understanding the effects of own behavior on others.
Episode (episodic)A specified duration of time during which the patient has developed or experienced symptoms that meet the diagostic criteria for a given mental disorder. Depending on the type of mental disorder, this may denote a certan number of symptoms or a specivied severity or frequency of symptoms.
EuphoriaA mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness , excitement, and joy.
FatigailityTendency to become easily fatigued.
FatigueA state usually associated witha weakening or depletion of one's physical and/or mental resources, ranging froma general state of lethargy to a specific, work-induced burning sensation within one's muscles.
FearAn emotional response to perceived imminent threat or danger associated with urges to flee or fight.
Flashback A dissociative state during which aspects of a traumatic event are reexperienced as though they were occurring at that moment.
Flight of ideasA nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech with abrupt changes from topic to topic that are usually based on understanable associations, distracting stimuli, or plays on words. When the condition is severe, speech may be disorganized and incoherent.
GenderThe public (and usually legally recognized) lived role as boy or girl, man or woman. Biological factors are sen as contributing in interaction with social and psychological factors to gender development.
Gender assignmentThe initial assignment as male or female, which usually occurs at birth and is subsequently referred to as the "natal gender."
Gender dysphoriaDistress that accompanies the incongruence beten one's experienced and expressed gender and one's assigned or natal gender.
Gender experienceThe unique and personal ways in which individual experience their gender in the context of the gender roles provied by their societies.
Gender expressionThe specific ways in which individuals enact gender roles provided in their societies.
Gender identityA category of social identity that refers to an individual's identification as male, female or, occasionally, some category other than male or female.
Gender ReassignmentA change of gender that can be either medical (hormones, surgery) or legal (government recognition), or both. In case of medicasl interventions, often referred to as sex reassignment.
GrandiosityBelieving that one is superior to others and deserves special treatment; self-centerdness; feelings of entitlement; condescension toward others.
GrimaceOdd and inappropriate facial expressions unrelated to situation.
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