cuvasine's version from 2015-10-07 23:42


Question Answer
Epinephrine Prep for Injectable1:1000 and 1:10,000
What are the catecholamine drugs?Dopamine (Fenoldopam, Dopexamine), Dopamine Hydrochlroide, Epinephrine
What are the theraputic uses for epic?deepens from bronchospasm, hypotension, cardiac arrest partial/complete AV block, hypersensitive rxn, prolong local anesthetic, topical hemostatic agent
When is Epi contraindicated?Pregnancy- causes abortion
Epi adverse effects in tissue?necrosis, sloughing of tissue at injection site
Epi adverse effects in heart?cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension
Dopamine in low concentrations?Activates D1 receptors
What do D1 receptors do?increase renal blood flow (GFR), and sodium excretion
Therapeutic uses of Dopamine in low concetrations?Cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock
Dopamine in high concentrations?Activates B1 receptors (positive inotropic action; releases NE from nerve terminals (indirect)
Maximal concentrations of dopamineactivates A1 receptors (vasoconstriction)
What form of dopamine is given IV?Dopamine Hydrochloride
Dopamine hydrochloride used for?treatment of shock including oliguric patients
Why don't we use dopamine in cats?lack dopamine receptors
Fenoldopam therapeutic use?lowers BP
Dopexamine therapeutic use?activaes B receptors- positive iontropic action
Precaution of dopamine?Correct hypovolemia first!
Adverse Rxn of Dopamine?ischemic necrosis and sloughing
Contraindications of Dopamine?when patient is using MAO or tricyclic anti depressant

Section 2

A1-adrenergic agonists
Question Answer
Use of Methoxamine?prevent hypotension during surgery
Action of methoxamine?direct acting vasoconstriction (increases peripheral resistance and BP
Methoxamine pressure agent- true or false?True
How is methoxamine given?IV or IM
Adverse effects of methoxamine?Hypertension, headache and vomiting
Metaraminol used for?hypotension
Which A1 adrenergic agonists are mixed action drugs?Metaraminol, mephentermine
Use of mephentermine?prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia
Use of phenlephrine?Nasal decongestant, mydriatic agent, vasopressor
Phenlephrine action?direct (ophthalmic or nasal)
common name of Phenylpropanolamine?PROIN
Use of phenylpropanolamine?Urinary incontinence in dogs and cats

Section 3

A2 adrenergic agonists
Question Answer
Side effects of clonidine?dry mouth, sedation, rebound hypertension, sexual dysfunction, bradycardia
Therapeutic uses of clonidine?Hyper tension, pre-op sedative/analgesia
Clonidine acts on what receptors?acts on A2 adrenergic receptors in cardiovascular centers of CNS
Clonidines effects on sympathetic NS?suppresses outflow
Effects of Clonidine on pain?Modulates CNS perception of pain
How is clonidine absorbed best?orally (nearly 100% bioavail)
Therapeutic uses of aproclonidine?glaucoma; reduces aqeous humor
Therapeutic uses of detomidine?sedation in anesthetic premed in horses and large animals
Therapeutic uses of xylazine?anesthetic pre med in horses, cattle and large animals
Adverse effects of xylazine?bradycardia, conduction disturbances, myocardial depression
How is detomidine administered?IV, can be combined with ketamine for general anesthesia
What receptors does xylazine activate?A2A receptor subtype in locus coeruleus of brainstem and spinal cord
Therapeutic uses of medetomidine?sedative with analgesic action in small animals and horses
What drug is used to treat emergence delirium?Medetomidine
How is romifidine given in horses?Iv use in horses
Therapeutic uses of methyl-dopa?centrally antihypertensive agent
Where is methyl-dopa metabolized?in brain; metabolized to a-methyl norepi

Section 3

Other Adrenergic agonists
Question Answer
What drug is a non-selective B adrenergic agonist?isoproterenol
What are the adverse side effects of isoproterenol?palpitations, tachycardia, headache, cardiac ischemia, arrhythmias
What does isoproterenol treat?Bradycardia/heart block; asthma, vasodilation and uterine relaxation
Synthetic catecholamine?Isoproteronol & dobutamine
What receptor is being used to treat vasodilation/ uterine relaxation with isoproterenol?B2
What receptor is being used to treat bradycardia/heart block with isoproterenol?B1
What drug is a B1 adrenergic agonist?Dobutamine
How is dobutamine given?IV route
Therapeutic use of dobutamine?inotropic agent without altering HR or cardiac rhythm; congestive heart failure
Side effects of dobutamine?Increases AV conduction (exacerbates a-fib), Tolerance (tachyphylaxis)
Use of amphetamine?stimulant in mood and alertness (ADHD in dogs); obesity treatment
What kind of agent is amphetamine?Potent CNS stimulating agent
How does amphetamine work?Peripheral a and b actions- release of catecholamines from storage vesicles
Side effects of amphetamine?insomina, tremor, restlessness, excitement and agitation, chronic use cause dependence
Side effects in cardiovascular system with amphetamine?cardiac arrhythmias
Side effects in GI of amphetamine?dry mouth, anorexia, metallic taste, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps
Therapeutic use of ephedrine?bronchodilation, hypotension, nasal decongestant, urinary incontinence, adjuvant in mayasthenia gravis
Side effects of ephedrine?hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias; insomnia, tachyphylaxis

Section 4

B2 Adrenergic Agonists
Question Answer
How is metaproteronal given?oral and inhalation
When is terbutaline preferred?animals with heart disease
How is terbutaline given?oral, SQ, inhalation
Salbutamol (Albuterol) given?oral and aerosol
What are the b2 adrenergic agonists that are bronchodilators?Metaproterenol, Terbutaline, Salbutamol (Albuterol), Salmeterol, Clenbuterol
What makes Salmeterol different?slow onset, long acting (preventative)
How is salmeterol given?inhalation powder- available in combo with corticosteroid fluticasone (advair)
What drug is banned in food animals?Clenbuterol (performance enhancing)
What is clenbuterol used for?COPD in horses
Side effects of clenbuterol?tachycardia; down regulation of receptors

Section 5

B2 Adrenergic Agonists
Question Answer
What are the general therapeutic uses of b2 adrenergic Agonists?CHF (b1 receptor agonist); Bronchial asthma, premature labor (b2 receptor agonist), Navicular disease, repartioning agent
What Ractopamine repartioning agent is used in cattle? Optaflexx
What ractopamine repartioning agent is used in swine?Paylean
What is good about ractopamine?No pre slaughter withdrawal period
Side effects of Ractopamine?anorexia, bloat, locomotion disorder
What are general side effect of b2 adrenergic agonist?Skeletal muscle tremor, pulmonary edema, tachycardia, down regulation of receptors with chronic use
What drug is used to treat navicular disease?Isosurpine
How is Isosurpine given?powder added to food
What is Ritodrine?uterine relaxant (tocolytic agent)
Therapeutic use of ritodrine?reduce uterine contractions to reduce premature binding

Section 6

Non-selective a-receptor direct antagonist
Question Answer
What drugs are non-selective alpha receptor direct antagonists?Phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, tolazoline
What drug do you use prior to surgical removal of adrenal tumor?Phenoxybenzamine, prevents hypertensive crisis (Pheochromocytoma)
What drug do you use for detrusor areflexia in dogs and cats?Phenoxybenzamine
What drug is used for management of benign prostatic obstructions?Phenoxybenzamine
What drug is used for treatment of hypertension associated with pheochromocytoma?phentolamine
What drug prevents dermal necrosis on extraversion of alpha agonist (SC admin)phentolamine
What drug is used for intramural submucosal injection to reverse oral local anesthetic toxicity?phentolamine
What drug reverses side effects of xylazine?tolazoline
What drug treats resistant pulmonary hypertension of newborn?tolazoline
What drug is used as aid in visualizing distal periphery vessels during arteriography?tolazoline
What are the side effects of phentolamine?postural hypotension, relfex tach, arrhythmias, diarrhea (muscarinic action)
What drugs toxicity has mutagenic nature?Phenoxybenzamine
Side effects of phenoxybenzamine?postural hypotension with reflex tach, nasal stuffiness nausea and emesis, and inhibit ejaculation and aspermia
What are the side effects of tolazoline?cardiac arrhythmia, GI stimulation (abdominal pain) nausea and exacerbation of peptic ulcer

Section 7

a-receptor direct antagonist
Question Answer
What drug is a selective a-1 antagonist?prazosin
What drug treats hyper tension and benign prostate hypertrophy?prazosin
What drug reverses xylazine and detomidine?yohimbine
What drugs are a selective a-2 antagonist? yohimibine and atipamezole
how is atipamezole used?IM
What is the reversal agent of detomidine and medetomidine in dogs?atipamezole
What is the source for yohimbine?Pausinystalia yohimbe
What is the mechanism of yohimbine?selectively blocks A2 receptor in brain causing release of NE at synaptic cleft
What are the side effects of prazosin?dizziness, nasal congestion, headache, drowsiness, orthostatic hypotension